Max Your Immunity

How to Maximize Your Immune System When You Need It Most

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Max Your Immunity
Available
08/16/2021
Square One Publishers

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HEALTH & FITNESS / Diet & Nutrition / Nutrition

9780757005121
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By:  Pamela Wartian Smith

Description

The word immunity has unfortunately become an all-too-common term in our vocabulary, and for good reason. When the pandemic hit, many of the major drug companies created vaccines that offered us “immunity” against this specific virus. Yet, few of us understand that almost all these vaccines work based upon their activating our own built-in systems of defense. It is our very own immunity to these viruses that can make the difference between illness and health. To help clarify what each of us can do to protect ourselves and our loved ones, Pamela Wartian Smith, MD has written Max Your Immunity. Here is a complete guide to understanding and maximizing your natural defenses against various infectious diseases.

Max Your Immunity is divided into three parts. Part One explains how our innate and adaptive immunity systems work. Our innate immunity system is based on our built-in barriers designed to fight or separate us from infectious agents. Our adaptive immunity, also called acquired immunity, is composed of lymphocyte cells that are triggered when a specific pathogen enters the body. These cells learn to identify the invading pathogens and hunt them down. In this section, each component in both systems are clearly identified and explained. Part Two provides ten important things that you can do to increase and strengthen all of these components. And Part Three provides specific nutritional plans to increase your body’s immunity to help defend against the most common health disorders.

By simply having a clear understanding of how our internal defenses work and what we can do to increase our immunity, we can play an important role in maintaining good health. Max Your Immunity can help show you what you need to know to protect yourself and your family.

Reviews

Author Biography

Pamela Wartian Smith, MD, MPH, MS, is a diplomate of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians and past co-director of the Master's Program in Medical Sciences, with a concentration in Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, at the Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida. An authority on the subjects of wellness and functional medicine, she is also the founder of the Fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine. Dr. Smith is the best-selling author of ten books, including What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & So Much MoreWhat You Must Know About Women's Hormones; and What You Must Know About Memory Loss.

Table of contents

Contents 

Acknowledgments, vii

Introduction, 1

PART 1
How Your Immune System Works

1. What Makes Up Your Immune System?, 5

2. What Is an Autoimmune Disease?, 17

3. How Is Your Immune System Measured?, 23

4. Does Your Immune System Change With Age?, 27

PART 2
Lifestyle Changes to Strengthen Your Immunity

5. Alcohol: Moderation Is the Key to Health, 33

6. Exercise: Whether You Like It or Not, 38

7. Your Gut: A Healthy Gut Equals a Healthy Immune System, 54

8. Inflammation: Its Effect on the Immune System, 86

9. Sleep: Get a Good Night’s Sleep, 110

10. Smoking: How It Affects the Immune System, 123

11. Stress: Manage Your Stress, 129

12. Sugar: Minimize Your Intake for Healthy Eating, 138

13. Thyroid: Optimize Its Function, 146

14. Water: Stay Hydrated, 164

PART 3
Herbal and Nutritional Therapies for Immune Building

HERBAL THERAPIES

Astragalus, 172

Cordyceps, 173

Echinacea, 175

Elderberry, 176

Garlic, 177

Ginseng, 179

Goldenseal, 183

Glycyrrhizin, 185

Olive Leaf Extract, 189

Oregano, 190

NUTRITIONAL THERAPIES

Arginine, 193

Carnitine, 196

Chromium, 199

Cysteine, 199

Glutamine, 201

Manganese, 203

Selenium, 206

Vitamin A, 208

Vitamin D, 210

Zinc, 212

OTHER NUTRIENTS

Beta Glucans, 217

Carnosine, 219

Colostrum, 220

Glutathione, 222

Sulforaphane, 224

THERAPIES THAT DECREASE INFLAMMATION

Aloe Vera, 226

American Skullcap, 227

Boswellia, 228

Cayenne Pepper, 229

Chinese Skullcap, 232

Curcumin, 233

Feverfew, 235

Fish Oil, 236

Ginger, 237

Green Tea, 238

N-Acetyl Cysteine, 240

Pomegranate, 244

Pycnogenol, 246

Resveratrol, 247

Rosemary, 249

Thyme, 251

White Willow Bark Extract, 252

Conclusion, 255

Resources, 259

References, 263

About the Author, 264

Index, 265

References

References

 

Introduction

 

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PART 1

Chapter 1: What Makes Up Your Immune System?

 

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Chapter 2: What Is An Autoimmune Disease?

 

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Chapter 3: How Is Your Immune System Measured?

 

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Zhernakova, A., et al., “Detecting shared pathogenesis from the shared genetics of immune-related diseases,” Nat Rev Genet 2009; 10:43-55.

 

Chapter 4: Does Your Immune System Change With Age?

 

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Hazeldine, J., et al., “The impact of ageing on natural killer cell function and potential consequences for health in older adults,” Ageing Res Rev 2013; 12(4):1069-78.

 

 

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PART 2

 

Chapter 5: Alcohol

 

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Bhatty, M., et al., “Alcohol abuse and streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of virulence factors and impaired immune responses,” Alcohol 2011; 45(6):523-39.

 

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Sander, M., et al., “Suppression of interleukin-6 to interleukin-10 ratio in chronic alcoholics: Association with postoperative infections,” Intensive Care Med 2002; 28(3):285–92.

 

Seitz, H., et al., “The relationship between alcohol metabolism, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk,” Alcohol Res Health 2007; 30(1):42–3.

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Singal, A., et al., “Mechanisms of synergy between alcohol and hepatitis C virus,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 41(8):761–72.

 

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Starkenburg, S., et al., “Early alteration in leukocyte populations and Th1/Th2 function in ethanol-consuming mice,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2001; 25(8):1221–30.

 

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Szabo, G., et al., “A recent perspective on alcohol, immunity, and host defense,” Alcohol Slin Exp Res 2009; 33(2):220-32.

 

Szabo, G., et al., “Acute alcohol consumption inhibits accessory cell function of monocytes and dendritic cells,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2004; 28(5):824–48.

 

Szabo, G., et al., “Focus on: Alcohol and the immune system,” Alcohol Res Health 2010; 33(1-2):97-108.

Szabo, G., et al., “Reduced alloreactive T-cell activation after alcohol intake is due to impaired monocyte accessory cell function and correlates with elevated IL-10, IL-13, and decreased IFN gamma levels,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2001; 25(12):1766–72.

 

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Chapter 6: Exercise

 

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Abbasi, A., et al., “Exhaustive exercise modifies different gene expression profiles and pathways in LPS-stimulated and un-stimulated whole blood cultures,” Brain Behav Immun 2014; 39:130-41.

 

Agha, N., et al., “Exercise and the regulation of immune functions,” Prog Molecul Biol Translational Sci 2015; 135:355–80.

 

Allen, J., et al., “Exercise alters gut microbiota composition and function in lean and obese humans,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018; 50(4):747-57.

 

 

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Clark, A., et al., “Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2016; 13:43.

 

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Mackinnon, L., “Special feature of the Olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes,” Immunol Cell Biol 2000; 78(5):502-09.

 

Martin, S., et al., “Exercise and respiratory tract viral infections,” Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2009; 37:157–64.

 

Matthews, C., et al., “Moderate to vigorous physical activity and the risk of upper-respiratory tract infection,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34:1242-48.

 

Mehta, N., et al., “Exercise as a countermeasure for latent viral reactivation during long duration space flight,” FASEB Jour 2020; 34:2869–81.

 

Narula, N., et al., “Exercise and inflammatory bowel disease,” Can Jour Gastroenterol 2008; 22(5):497-504.

 

Neiman, D., et al., “The compelling link between physical activity and the body’s defense system,” Jour Sport Health Sci 2019; 8(3):201-17.

 

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O’Gorman, D., et al., “Exercise and the treatment of diabetes and obesity,” in Obesity: Brain-Gut and Inflammation Connection: Part II, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 2008; 37(4):887-903.

 

Pedersen, B., et al., “Exercise and the immune system: Regulation, integration, and adaptation,” Physiol Rev 2000; 80(3):1055-81.

 

Piercy, K., et al., “The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans,” JAMA 2018; 320:2020–28.

 

Sander, R., “Exercise boosts immune response,” Nurs Older People 2012; 24(6):11.

 

Simpson, K., et al., “Exercise and the aging immune system,” Aging Res Rev 2012; 11(3):404-20.

 

Simpson, R., et al., “Can exercise affect immune function to increase susceptibility to infection,” Exerc Immunol Rev 2020; 26:8-22.

 

Simpson, R., et al., “The immunological case for staying active during the COVID-10 pandemic,” Brain Behav Immun 2020; April 18.

 

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Suzuki, K., et al., “Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics,” Exerc Immunol Rev 2002; 8:6-48.

 

Ticinesi, A., et al., “Exercise and immune system as modulators of intestinal microbiome: Implications for the gut-muscle axis hypothesis,” Exerc Immunol Rev 2019; 25:84-95.

 

Turner, J., “Is immunosenescence influenced by our lifetime “dose” of exercise?” Biogerontology 2016; 17(3):581-602.

 

Walsh, N., “Recommendations to maintain immune health in athletes,” Eur Jour Sports Sci 2018; 18(6):829-31.

 

Walsh, N., et al., “Exercise, immune function and respiratory infection: An update of the influence of training and environmental stress,” Immunol Cell Biol 2016; 94(2):132-39.

 

Walsh, N., et al., “Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise,” Exercise Immunol Rev 2011; 17:6–63.

 

Chapter 7: Gut

 

Adamska, A., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in adult patients with type 1 diabetes: its prevalence and relationship with metabolic control and the presence of chronic complications of the disease,” Pol Arch Med Wewn 2016; 126(9):628-34.

 

Adike, A., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: nutritional implications, diagnosis, and management,” Gastroenterol Clin North Amer 2018; 47(1):193-208.

 

Agnoletti, A., et al., “Etiopathogenesis of rosacea: a prospective study with a three-year follow-up,” G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017; 152(5):418-23.

 

Akobeng, A., et al., “Glutamine for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease,” Cochrane Database Systematic Rev 2016; 2:CD007348.

 

Azpiroz, F., et al., “Mechanisms of hypersensitivity in IBS and functional disorders,” Neurogastroenterol Motil 2007; 19(1 Suppl):62–88.

 

Berkson, D. L., Healthy Digestion the Natural Way. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Bischoff, S., “Gut health: a new objective in medicine?” BMC Med 2011; 9:24.

 

Bischoff, S., et al., “Intestinal permeability—a new target for disease prevention and therapy,” BMC Gastroenterology (Review) 2014; 14:189.

 

Blaut, M., et al., “Metabolic diversity of the intestinal microbiota: implications for health and disease,” Jour Nutr 2007; 137:751S–755S.

 

Boirivant, M., et al., “The mechanism of action of probiotics,” Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2007; 23:679–92.

 

Brenner, D., et al., “The utility of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2009; 104:1033–49.

 

Bull, M., et al., “The human gut microbiome in health and disease,” Integr Med (Encinitas) 2014; 13:17-22.

 

Bures, J., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2010; 16(24):2978-90.

 

Carding, S., et al., “Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease,” Microb Ecol Health Dis 2015; PMID: 25651997.

 

Cario, E., “Bacterial interactions with cells of the intestinal mucosa: Toll-like receptors and NOD2,” Gut 2005;54:1182–93.

 

Cerutti, A., et al., “The biology of intestinal immunoglobulin A responses,” Immunity 2008; 28:740–50.

 

Chafen, J., et al., “Diagnosing and managing common food allergies: a systematic review,” JAMA 2010; 303:1848–56.

 

 Chen, M., et al., “Oral phosphatidylcholine improves intestinal barrier function in drug-induced liver injury in rats,” Gastroenterol Res Pract 2019; 2019:8723460.

 

Choct, M., “Managing gut health through nutrition,” Brit Poult Sci 2009; 50:9–15.

 

Chung, H., et al., “Microbiota-stimulated immune mechanisms to maintain gut homeostasis,” Curr Opin Immunol 2010; 22:455–60.

 

Codling, C., et al., “A Molecular analysis of fecal and mucosal bacterial communities in irritable bowel syndrome,” Dig Dis Sci 2010; 55:392–97.

 

Collado, M., et al., “The impact of probiotic on gut health,” Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:68–78.

 

Collins, S., et al., “The relationship between intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system in normal gastrointestinal function and disease,” Gastroenterology 2009; 136:2003–14.

 

Comalada, M., et al., “In vivo quercitrin anti-inflammatory effect involves release of quercetin, which inhibits inflammation through down-regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway,” Eur Jour Immunol 2005; 35(2):584-92.

 

Damaskos, D., et al., “Probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: Microflora ‘on the scope,’” Brit Jour Clin Pharmcol 2008; 66(2):339.

 

Dave, M., et al., “The human gut microbiome: Current knowledge, challenges, and future directions,” Transl Res Jour Lab Clin Med 2012; 60:246–57. 

 

De Preter, V., et al., “Effects of Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium breve, and oligofructose-enriched inulin on colonic nitrogen-protein metabolism in healthy humans,” Amer Jour Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007; 292:G358–G368.

 

De-Souza, D., et al., “Intestinal permeability and systemic infections in critically ill patients: effect of glutamine,” Crit Care Med 2005; 33:1125–35.

 

Dinan, T., et al., “IBS: an epigenetic perspective,” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 7:465–71.

 

Duda-Chodak, A., et al., “Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: A review,” Eur Jour Nutr 2015; 54(3):325-41.

 

Duerkop, B., et al., “Immune responses to the microbiota at the intestinal mucosal surface,” Immunity 2009; 31:368–76.

 

Enko, D., et al., “Functional (13)C-urea and glucose hydrogen/methane breath tests reveal significant association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in individuals with active Helicobacter pylori infection,” Clin Biochem 2017; 50(1-2):46-9.

 

Erdogan, A., et al., “Small intestinal fungal overgrowth,” Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2015; 17(4):16.

 

Fasano, A., “Intestinal permeability and its regulation by zonulin: diagnostic and therapeutic implications,” Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol (Review) 2012; 10(10):1096-100.

 

Fasano, A., “Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases,” Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2012; 42(1):71-8.

 

Fasano, A., “Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer,” Physiological Rev 2011; 91(1):151.

 

Fasano, A., et al., “Mechanisms of disease: the role of intestinal barrier function in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases,” Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 2:416–22.

 

Ferguson, L., et al., “Nutrigenomics New Zealand. Nutrigenomics and gut health,” Mutat Res 2007; 622:1–6.

 

Festi, D., et al., “Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2014; 20(43):16079-094.

 

Fortune, P., et al., “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the small intestine,” Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2005; 21(2):169-75.

 

Galdeano, C., et al., “Beneficial effects of probiotic consumption on the immune system,” Ann Nutr Met 2019; 74(2):115-24.

 

Gershon, M., et al., “The serotonin signaling system: from basic understanding to drug development for functional GI disorders,” Gastroenterology 2007; 132:397–414.

 

Graham, D., et al., “Why do apparently healthy people use antacid tablets?” Am Jour Gastroenterol 1983, 78(5):257-60.

 

Groschwitz, K., et al., “Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis,” Jour Allergy Clin Immunol 2009; 124:3–20.

 

Guarner, F., et al., “Gut flora in health and disease,” Lancet 2003; 361(9356):512-19.

 

Heyman, M., et al., “Intestinal permeability in coeliac disease: insight into mechanisms and relevance to pathogenesis,” Gut (Review) 2012; 61(9):1355-64.

 

Hiscock, N., et al., “Glutamine supplementation further enhances exercise-induced plasma IL-6,” Jour Appl Physiol 2003; 95:145-48.

 

Hoveyda, N., et al., “A systematic review and meta-analysis: probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome,” BMC Gastroenterol 2009; 9:15.

 

Hsiao, W., et al., “The microbes of the intestine: an introduction to their metabolic and signaling capabilities,” Endocrinol Metab Clin North Amer 2008; 37:857–71.

 

Hwang, B., et al., “Antimicrobial constituents from Goldenseal (the Rhizomes of Hydrastis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens,” Planta Medica 2003; 69(7):623-27.

 

Ianiro, G., et al., “Digestive enzyme supplementation in gastrointestinal diseases,” Curr Drug Metabol 2016; 17(2):187-93.

 

Jacobs, C., et al., “Dysmotility and proton pump inhibitor use are independent risk factors for small intestinal bacterial and/or fungal overgrowth,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2013; 37(11):1103-11.

 

Jacobs, D., et al., “Non-digestible food ingredients, colonic microbiota and the impact on gut health and immunity: a role for metabolomics,” Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:41–54.

 

Jeong, S., et al., “Risk assessment of ciprofloxacin, flavomycin, olaquindox and colistin sulfate based on microbiological impact on human gut biota,” Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2009; 53:209–16.

 

Kamhi, E., Arthritis. 2nd Ed. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts Press, 2006.

 

Kassinen, A., et al., “The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subjects,” Gastroenterology 2007; 133:24–33.

 

Kawabata, K., et al., “Role of intestinal microbiota in the bioavailability and physiological functions of dietary polyphenols,” Molecules 2019; 24(2):370.

 

Kinross, J., et al., “The gut microbiota as a target for improved surgical outcome and improved patient care,” Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15:1537–45.

 

Kinross, J., et al., “The human gut microbiome: implications for future health care,” Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2008; 10:396–403.

 

Klimberg, V., et al., “Oral glutamine accelerates healing of the small intestine and improves outcome after whole abdominal radiation,” Arch Surg 1990; 125:1040-45.

 

Krajicek, E., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a primary care review,” Mayo Clin Proc 2016; 91(12):1828-33. 

 

Kramer, S., et al., “Selective activation of human intestinal mast cells by Escherichia coli hemolysin,” Jour Immunol 2008; 181:1438–45.

 

Lamkisch, P., “Exocrine pancreatic function tests,” Gut 1982; 23(9):777-98.

 

Le, K., et al., “Fructose overconsumption causes dyslipidemia and ectopic lipid deposition in healthy subjects with and without a family history of type 2 diabetes,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2009; 89:1760–65.

 

Leventogiannis, K., et al., “Effect of a preparation of four probiotics on symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome: association with intestinal bacterial overgrowth,” Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2019; 11(2):627-34.

 

Levy, M., et al., “Dysbiosis and the immune system,” Nat Rev Immunol 2017; 17(4):219-32.        

 

Lopetuso, L., et al., “The therapeutic management of gut barrier leaking: the emerging role of mucosal barrier protectors,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19(6):1068-76.

 

Lutgendorff, F., et al., “The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastro-intestinal damage,” Curr Mol Med 2008; 8:282–98.

 

Macfarlane, G., et al., “Human colonic microbiota: ecology, physiology and metabolic potential of intestinal bacteria,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol Suppl 1997; 222:3–9.

 

Mai, V., et al., “Colonic bacterial flora: changing understandings in the molecular age,” Jour Nutr 2004; 134:459–64.

 

Mai, V., et al., “Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2009; 15:81–5.

 

Mankertz, J., et al., “Altered permeability in inflammatory bowel disease: pathophysiology and clinical implications,” Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2007; 23:379–83.

 

Marteau, P., et al., “Probiotics and intestinal health effects: a clinical perspective,” Brit Jour Nutr 2002; 88(Suppl 1):S51–S57.

 

McCarthy, C., “Nutritional defects in patients with malabsorption,” Pro Nutr Soc 1976; 35:37-40.

 

Meddings, J., “The significance of the gut barrier in disease,” Gut 2008; 57:438–40.

 

Mondel, M., et al., “Probiotic E. coli treatment mediates antimicrobial human β-defensin synthesis and fecal excretion in humans,” Mucosal Immunol 2009; 2:166–72.

 

Morley, J., “The aging gut: physiology,” Clin Geriatr Med 2007; 23(4):757-67.

 

Myers, S., et al., “The causes of intestinal dysbiosis: A review,” Altern Med Rev 2004; 9(2):180-97.

 

Nava, P., et al., “The rotavirus surface protein Vp8 modulates the gate and fence function of tight junctions in epithelial cells,” Jour Cell Sci 2004; 117(23):5509-19.

 

Nieuwenhuis, E., et al., “The role of the epithelial barrier in inflammatory bowel disease,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2006; 579:108–16.

 

Ohman, L., et al., “Pathogenesis of IBS: role of inflammation, immunity and neuroimmune interactions,” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 7:163–73.

 

Otamiri, T., et al., “Ginkgo biloba extract prevents mucosal damage associated with small-intestinal ischaemia,” Scandinavian Jour Gastroenterol 1989; 24(6):666-70.

 

Ott, S., et al., “Reduction in diversity of the colonic mucosa associated bacterial microflora in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 2004; 53:685–93

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Pimentel, M., et al., “ACG clinical guideline: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2020; 115(2):165-78. 

 

Possemiers, S., et al., “The intestinal environment in health and disease: recent insights on the potential of intestinal bacteria to influence human health,” Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15:2051–65.

 

Preidis, G., et al., “Targeting the human microbiome with antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics: gastroenterology enters the metagenomics era,” Gastroenterology 2009; 136:2015–31.

 

Qin, H., et al., “L. plantarum prevents enteroinvasive Escherichia coli-induced tight junction proteins changes in intestinal epithelial cells,” BMC Microbiol 2009; 9:63.

 

Rao, R., et al., “Recent advances in alcoholic liver disease I. Role of intestinal permeability and endotoxemia in alcoholic liver disease,” Amer Jour Physiology, Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology 2004:286(6):G881-G884.

 

Rath, C., et al., “The bacterial chemical repertoire mediates metabolic exchange within gut microbiomes,” Curr Opin Microbiol 2012; 15:147-54.

 

Resnick, C., “Microbial Enzyme Therapy,” in Natural Medicine (3rd Ed.) Pizzorno, J., St. Louis, Elsivier, 2006, p. 1075-76.

 

Rey, E., et al., “Irritable bowel syndrome: novel views on the epidemiology and potential risk factors,” Dig Liver Dis 2009; 41:772–80.

 

Rhee, S., et al., “Principles and clinical implications of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis,” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 6:306–14.

 

Roberfroid, M., et al., “Prebiotic effects: Metabolic and health benefits,” Brit Jour Nutr 2010; 104(Suppl 2):S1-S63.

 

Round, J., et al., “The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease,” Nat Rev Immunol 2009; 9:313–23.

 

Roxas, M., “The role of enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders,” Altern Med Rev 2008; 13(4):307-14.

 

Sanders, M., “Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut,” Jour Clin Gasteroenterol 2011; 45(Suppl):S115-S119.

 

Sauter, N., et al., “The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protects from high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia,” Endocrinology 2008; 149:2208–18.

 

Schneider, M., et al., “Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy: comparative effects of conventional and enteric-coated microspheric pancreatin and acid-stable fungal enzyme preparations on steatorrhea in chronic pancreatitis,” Hepatogastroenterology 1985; 32:97-102.

 

Sender, R., et al., “Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body,” PLoS Biol 2016; 14:e1002533.

 

Sharma, R., et al., “Molecular modulation of intestinal epithelial barrier: contribution of microbiota,” Jour Biomed Biotechnol 2010; 2010:305879.

 

Sies, H., et al., “Nutritional, dietary and postprandial oxidative stress,” Jour Nutr 2005; 135(5):969-72.

 

Sonnenburg, E., et al., “Specificity of polysaccharide use in intestinal Bacteroides species determines diet-induced microbiota alterations,” Cell 2010; 141:1241–52.

 

Stevens, Y., et al., “The intestinal fate of citrus flavanones and their effects on gastrointestinal health,” Nutrients 2019; 11(7):1464.

 

Strober, W., “The multifaceted influence of the mucosal microflora on mucosal dendritic cell responses,” Immunity 2009; 31:377–88.

 

Su, T., et al., “Meta-analysis: proton pump inhibitors moderately increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth,” Jour Gastroenterol 2018; 53(1):27-36.

 

Suez, J., et al., “Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: Findings and challenges,” Gut Microbes 2015; 6(2):149-55.

 

Sun, J., “Artificial sweeteners are not sweet to the gut microbiome,” Genes Dis 2014; 1(2):130-31.

 

Swidsinski, A., et al., “Mucosal flora in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: an overview,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 60(Suppl 6):61–71.

 

Swidsinski, A., et al., “Mucosal flora in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology 2002; 122:44–54.

 

Tack, G., et al., “The spectrum of celiac disease: epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment,” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 7:204–13.

 

Tana, C., et al., “Altered profiles of intestinal microbiota and organic acids may be the origin of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome,” Neurogastroenterol Motil 2010; 22:512–19.

 

Teixeira, T., et al., “Potential mechanisms for the emerging link between obesity and increased intestinal permeability,” Nutr Res (Review) 2012; 32(9):637-47.

 

Tennyson, C., et al., “Microecology, obesity, and probiotics,” Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2008; 15:422–27.

 

Tsurugizawa, T., et al., “Mechanisms of neural response to gastrointestinal nutritive stimuli: the gut-brain axis,” Gastroenterology 2009; 137:262–73.

 

Tuohy, K., et al., “Studying the human gut microbiota in the trans-omics era: focus on metagenomics and metabonomics,” Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15:1415–27.

 

Tuohy, K., et al., “Using probiotics and prebiotics to improve gut health,” Drug Discov Today 2003; 8:692–700.

 

Turnbaugh, P., et al., “The core gut microbiome, energy balance and obesity,” Jour Physiol 2009; 587:4153–58.

 

Ukena, S., et al., “Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 inhibits leaky gut by enhancing mucosal integrity,” PLoS One 2007; 2:e1308.

 

Vaahtovuo, J., “Fecal microbiota in early rheumatoid arthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 2008; 35:1500–005.

 

Valdes, A., et al., “Role of the gut microbiota in nutrition and health,” BMJ 2018; 361:k2179.

 

Verdu, E., “Probiotics effects on gastrointestinal function: beyond the gut?” Neurogastroenterol Motil 2009; 21:477–80.

 

Virili, C., et al., “Gut microbiota and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,” Rev Endocr Metab 2018; 19(4):293-300.

 

Vrieze, A., et al., “The environment within: how gut microbiota may influence metabolism and body composition,” Diabetologia 2010; 53:606–13.

 

Wegener, T., et al., "The active components and the pharmacological multi-target principle of STW 5 (Iberogast),” Phytomedicine 2006; 13(Suppl 5):20-35.

 

Wehkamp, J., et al., “Mechanisms of disease: defensins in gastrointestinal diseases,” Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 2:406–15.

 

Welbourne, T., et al., “An oral glutamine load enhances renal acid secretion and function,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 67:660-63.

 

Yousefi, B., et al., “Probiotics importance and their immunomodulatory properties,” Jour Cell Physiol 2019; 234(6):8008-018.

 

Chapter 8: Inflammation

 

Appleton, N., Stopping Inflammation: Relieving the Cause of Degenerative Diseases. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2005.

 

Bhargava, P., et al., “Role and function of macrophages in the metabolic syndrome,” Biochem Jour 2012; 442(2):253-62.

 

Bigliardi, P., et al., “Treatment of pruritus with topically applied opiate receptor antagonist,” Jour Amer Acad Derm 2007; 56(6):979-88.

 

Black, P., “The inflammatory consequences of psychologic stress: Relationship to insulin resistance, obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, type II,” Med hypotheses 2006; 67(4):879-91.

 

Bonaventura, P., et al., “Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation,” Autoimmun Rev 2015; 14(4):277-85.

 

Bordoni, A., et al., “Dairy products and inflammation: A review of clinical evidence,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017; 57(12):2497-525.

 

Brown, N., et al., “Low-dose naltrexone for disease prevention and quality of life,” Medical hypotheses 2009; 72:333-37.

 

Brown, N., et al., “Low-dose naltrexone for disease prevention and quality of life,” Med Hypotheses 2009;72:333–37.

 

Calder, P., et al., “Inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition,” Brit Jour Nutr 2009; 101(Suppl 1):S1-S45.

 

Chen, L., et al., “Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs,” Oncotarget 2017; 9(6):7204-18.

 

Dantzer, R., et al., “From inflammation to sickness and depression: When the immune system subjugates the brain,” Nat Rev Neurosci 2008; 9(1):46-56.

 

Fernandes, J., et al., “The role of the mediators of inflammation in cancer development,” Pathol Oncol Res 2015; 21(3):527-34.

 

Freire, M., et al., “Natural resolution of inflammation,” Periodontol 2000 2013; 63(1):149-64.

 

Ghasemian, M., et al., “Review of anti-inflammatory herbal medicines,” Adv Pharmacol Sci 2016; 2016:9130979.

 

Giugliano, D., et al., “The effects of diet on inflammation: Emphasis on the metabolic syndrome,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2006; 48(4):677-85.

 

Grivennikov, S., et al., “Immunity, inflammation, and cancer,” Cell 2010; 140(6):883-99.

 

Hosseini, B., et al., “Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and immune cell populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2018; 108(1):136-155.

 

Jaros, J., et al., “Lose dose naltrexone in dermatology,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2019; 18(3):235-38.

 

Jenny, N., “Inflammation in aging: Cause, effect, or both?” Discov Med 2012; 13(73):451-60.

 

Legein, B., et al., “Inflammation and immune system interactions in atherosclerosis,” Cell Mol Life Sci 2013; 70(20):3847-69.

 

Li, Z., et al., “Low-dose naltrexone (LDN): A promising treatment in immune-related diseases and cancer therapy,” Int Immunopharmacol 2018 61:178-84.

 

Lie, M., et al., “P418 Low dose naltrexone in therapy resistant IBD, a case series,” Jour Crohn’s Colitis 2014; 8:S240.

 

Maares, M., et al., “Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation,” Arch Biochem Biophys 2016; 611:58-65.

 

Macchia, D., et al., “Guidelines for the use and interpretation of diagnostic methods in adult food allergy,” Clin Mol Allergy 2015; 13:27.

 

Malekzad, F., et al., “Efficacy of oral naltrexone on pruritus in atopic eczema: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Jour Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23(8):948-50.

 

McCusker, R., et al., “Immune-neural connections: How the immune system’s response to infectious agents influences behavior,” Jour Exp Biol 2013; 216(Pt. 1):84-98.

 

McLaren, J., et al., “Cytokines, macrophage lipid metabolism and foam cells: Implications for cardiovascular disease therapy,” Prog Lipid Res 2011; 50(4):331-47.

 

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

 

Parker, C., et al., “Low dose naltrexone for induction of remission in Crohn's disease,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 4(4):CD010410.

 

Patten, D., et al., “The safety and efficacy of low-dose naltrexone in the management of chronic pain and inflammation in multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, Crohn's disease, and other chronic pain disorders,” Pharmacotherapy 2018; 38(3):382-89.

 

Pullen, A., et al., “Re-evaluating the causes and consequences of non-resolving inflammation in chronic cardiovascular disease,” Heart Fail Rev 2020; 2592):381-91.

 

Raknes, G., et al., “A sudden and unprecedented increase in low dose naltrexone (LDN) prescribing in Norway. Patient and prescriber characteristics and dispense patterns. A drug utilization cohort study,” Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2017; 26:136–42.

 

Raknes, G., et al., “The effect of low-dose naltrexone on medication in inflammatory bowel disease: A quasi experimental before-and-after prescription database study,” Jour Crohns Colitis 2018; 1296):677-86.

 

Riley, J., et al., “Mitochondrial DNA in inflammation and immunity,” EMBO Rep 2020 21(4):e49799.

 

Roh, J., et al., “Damage-associated molecular patterns in inflammatory diseases,” Immune Netw 2018; 18(4):e27.

 

Sears, B., “Anti-inflammatory diets,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2015; 34(Suppl 1):14-21.

 

Smith, J., et al., “Low-dose naltrexone therapy improves active Crohn's disease,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2007; 102(4):820-28.

 

Smith, J., et al., “Safety and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone therapy in children with moderate to severe Crohn's disease: a pilot study,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2013; 47(4):339-45. 

 

Tay, M., et al., “The trinity of COVID-19: Immunity, inflammation, and intervention,” Nat Rev Immunol 2020; 20(6):363-74.

 

Tufan, A., et al., “COVID-19, immune system response, hyperinflammation and repurposing antirheumatic drugs,” Turk Jour Med Sci 2020 50(S1-1):620-32.

 

Weinstock, I., “Naltrexone therapy for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis,” Jour Clin Gastroentrol 2014; 48(8):742.

 

Weinstock, L., “Naltrexone therapy for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2014; 48(8):742. Letter to the Editor.

 

Wellen, K., et al., “Inflammation, stress, and diabetes,” Jour Clin Invest 2005; 115(5):1111-19.

 

Yatto, M., et al., “Anti-inflammatory drugs and herbs with special emphasis on herbal medicines for countering inflammatory diseases and disorders: A review,” Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2018; 12(1):39-58.

 

Zagon, I., et al., “Targeting opioid signaling in Crohn’s disease: new therapeutic pathways,” Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 5:555–58.

Zhang, W., et al., “The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The perspectives of clinical immunologists from China,” Clin Immunol 2020; 214:108393.

 

Chapter 9: Sleep

 

Abbasi, B., et al., “The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Jour Res Med Sci 2012; 17:1161-69.

 

Adam, K., et al., “One gram of L-tryptophan fails to alter the time taken to fall asleep,” Neuropharmacology 1979; 18:1025-27.

 

Andersen, L., et al., “Sleep problems and computer use during work and leisure: Cross-sectional study among 7,800 adults,” Chronobiol Int 2015; 32(10):1367-72.

 

Arangino, S., et al., “Effects of melatonin a vascular reactivity, catecholamine levels, and blood pressure in healthy men,” Amer Jour Cardiol 1999;83:1417.

 

Arjona, A., et al., “Evidence supporting a circadian control of natural killer cell function,” Brain Behav Immun 2006; 20:469–76.

 

Atanassova, P., et al., “Impaired nocturnal melatonin in acute phase of ischaemic stroke: cross-sectional matched case-control analysis,” Jour Neuroendocrinol 2009; 21(7):657-63.

 

Atkin, T., et al., “Drugs for insomnia beyond benzodiazepines: pharmacology, clinical applications and discovery,” Pharmacol Rev 2019; 70(2):197-245.

 

Attarian, H., et al., “Treatment of chronic insomnia disorder in menopause: evaluation of literature,” Menopause 2015; 22:674-84.

 

Auld, F., et al., “Evidence for the efficacy of melatonin in the treatment of primary adult sleep disorders,” Sleep Med Rev 2017; 34:10-22.

 

Axelsson, J., et al., “Sleepiness and performance in response to repeated sleep restriction and subsequent recovery during semi-laboratory conditions,” Chronobiol Intl 2008; 25(2,3):297-308.

 

Belenky, G., et al., “Patterns of performance degradation and restoration during sleep restriction and subsequent recovery: a sleep dose-response study,” Sleep Res 2003; 12(1):1-12.

 

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Chapter 10: Smoking

 

Alzahrani, T., et al., “Association between electronic cigarette use and myocardial infarction,” Amer Jour Prev Med 2018; 55:455.

 

Anderson, G., et al., “Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with tobacco, cannabinoids and smoking cessation products,” Clin Pharmacokinet 2016; 55:1353.

 

Anthenelli R., et al., “Effects of varenicline on smoking cessation in adults with stably treated current or past major depression: a randomized trial,” Ann Intern Med 2013; 159:390.

 

Anthenelli, R., et al., “Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Lancet 2016; 387:2507.

 

Arancini, L., et al., “N-acetylcysteine for cessation of tobacco smoking: Rationale and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial,” Trials 2019; 20(1):555.

 

Aveyard, P., et al., “Strategic directions and emerging issues in tobacco control improving smoking cessation approaches at the individual level,” BMJ 2011; 21(2):252-57.

 

Baker, T., et al., “Effects of nicotine patch vs varenicline vs combination nicotine replacement therapy on smoking cessation at 26 weeks: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2016; 315:371.

 

Barnes, J., et al., “Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (CD001008).

 

Barua, R., et al., “2018 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on tobacco cessation treatment: a report of the American College of Cardiology task force on clinical expert consensus documents,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2018; 72:3332.

 

Bullen, C.,  et al., “Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial,” Lancet 2013; 382:1629.

 

Cahill, K., et al., “Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 5:CD009329.

 

Cooper, G., Never Smoke Again. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2007.

 

Cunningham, J., et al., “Effect of mailing nicotine patches on tobacco cessation among adult smokers: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA Intern Med 2016; 176:184.

 

Domagala-Kulawik, J., “Effects of cigarette smoke on the lung and systemic immunity,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 59(Suppl 6):19-34.

 

Donny, E., et al., “Randomized trial of reduced-nicotine standards for cigarettes,” NEJM 2015; 373:1340.

 

Ebbert, J., et al., “Combination varenicline and bupropion SR for tobacco-dependence treatment in cigarette smokers: a randomized trial,” JAMA 2014; 311:155.

 

Evins, A., et al., “Maintenance treatment with varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2014; 311:145.

 

Farley, A., et al., “Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 1:CD006219.

 

Gershon, A., et al., “Cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric events after varenicline use for smoking cessation,” Amer Jour Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 197:913.

 

Ghosh, A., et al., “Chronic e-cigarette exposure alters the human bronchial epithelial proteome,” Amer Jour Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 198:67.

 

Glantz, S., et al., “E-Cigarettes: use, effects on smoking, risks, and policy implications,” Ann Rev Public Health 2018; 39:215.

 

 

Goel, R., et al., “Highly reactive free radicals in electronic cigarette aerosols,” Chem Res Toxicol 2015; 28:1675.

 

Gomez-Coronado, N., et al., “Current and emerging pharmacotherapies for cessation of tobacco smoking,” Pharmacotherapy 2018; 38(2):235-58.

 

Goniewicz, M., et al., “Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes,” Tob Control 2014; 23:133.

 

Hajek, P., et al., “A randomized trial of e-cigarettes versus nicotine-replacement therapy,” NEJM 2019; 380:629.

 

Halpern, S., et al., “A pragmatic trial of e-cigarettes, incentives, and drugs for smoking cessation,” NEJM 2018; 378:2302.

 

Halpern, S., et al., “Randomized trial of four financial-incentive programs for smoking cessation,” NEJM 2015; 372:2108.

 

Hartmann, J., et al., “Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 5:CD000146.

 

Hartmann-Boyce, J., et al., “Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 9:CD010216.

 

Hays, J., et al., “Bupropion for the treatment of tobacco dependence: guidelines for balancing risks and benefits,” CNS Drugs 2003; 17:71.

 

Hersey, P., et al., “Effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. Follow-up studies in normal subjects after cessation of smoking,” Med Jour Aust 1983; 2(9):425-29.

 

Hughes, J., “Varenicline as a cause of suicidal outcomes,” Nicotine Tob Res 2016; 18:2.

 

Hughes, J., et al., “Antidepressants for smoking cessation,” Antidepressants for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 1:CD000031.

 

Kalkhoran, S., et al., “E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Respir Med 2016; 4:116.

 

Kerr, C., et al., “Low level laser for the stimulation of acupoints for smoking cessation: a double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial and semi structured interviews,” Jour Chin Med 2008; 86:46-51.

 

Koegelenberg, C., et al., “Efficacy of varenicline combined with nicotine replacement therapy vs varenicline alone for smoking cessation: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2014; 312:155.

 

Kosmider, L., et al., “Carbonyl compounds in electronic cigarette vapors: effects of nicotine solvent and battery output voltage,” Nicotine Tob Res 2014; 16:1319.

 

Kotz, D., et al., “Cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric risks of varenicline: a retrospective cohort study,” Lancet Respir Med 2015; 3:761.

 

Kroon, L., “Drug interactions with smoking,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2007; 64:1917.

Lee, J., et al., “Cigarette smoking and inflammation,” Jour Dent Res 2012; 91(2):142-49.

 

Lee, W., et al., “Modeling cardiovascular risks of e-cigarettes with human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2019; 73:2722.

 

Lindson, N., et al., “Different doses, durations, and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 4:CD013308.

 

Lindson-Hawley, N., et al., “Gradual reduction vs abrupt cessation as a smoking cessation strategy in smokers who want to quit,” JAMA 2013; 310:91.

 

Lindson-Hawley, N., et al., “Gradual versus abrupt smoking cessation: a randomized, controlled noninferiority trial,” Ann Intern Med 2016; 164:585.

 

Lindson-Hawley, N., et al., “Reduction versus abrupt cessation in smokers who want to quit,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11:CD008033.

 

McCauley, L., et al., “An unexpected consequence of electronic cigarette use,” Chest 2012; 141:1110.

 

McClure, E., et al., “Potential role of n-acetylcysteine in the management of substance use disorders,” CNS Drugs 2014; 28(2):95-106.

 

Mian, M., et al., “Exposure to cigarette smoke suppresses IL-15 generation and its regulatory NK cell functions in poly 1:C-augmented human PBMCs,” Mol Immunol 2009; 46(15):3108-16.

 

Mills, E., et al., “Comparisons of high-dose and combination nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, and bupropion for smoking cessation: a systematic review and multiple treatment meta-analysis,” Ann Med 2012; 44:588.

 

Patel, D., et al, “Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review,” Clin Pharmacol 2010; 2:17-29.

 

Pirie, K., et al., “The 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK,” Lancet 2013; 381(9861):133–41.

 

Prado, E., et al., “N-acetylcysteine for therapy-resistant tobacco use disorder: A pilot study,” Redox Rep 2015; 20(5):215-22.

 

Reidel, B., et al., “E-cigarette use causes a unique innate immune response in the lung, involving increased neutrophilic activation and altered mucin secretion,” Amer Jour Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 197:492.

 

Rose, J., et al., “Combination varenicline/bupropion treatment benefits highly dependent smokers in an adaptive smoking cessation paradigm,” Nicotine Tob Res 2017; 19:999.

 

Schnoll, R., et al., “Long-term nicotine replacement therapy: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175:504.

 

Siahpush, M., et al., “Association between duration of use of pharmacotherapy and smoking cessation: findings from a national survey,” BMJ Open 2015; 5:e006229.

 

Siu, A., et al., “Behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement,” Ann Intern Med 2015; 163:622.

 

Sleiman, M., et al., “Emissions from electronic cigarettes: key parameters affecting the release of harmful chemicals,” Environ Sci Technol 2016; 50:9644.

 

Sopori, M., “Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system,” Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2(5):372-77.

 

Steinberg, M., et al., “Triple-combination pharmacotherapy for medically ill smokers: a randomized trial,” Ann Intern Med 2009; 150:447.

 

Tahiri, M., et al., “Alternative smoking cessation aids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Med 2012; 125:576-84.

 

“The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics,” Drugs for Smoking Cessation. July 15,2019; Issue: 1576.  

 

Varenicline (Chantix) for tobacco dependence. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2006; 48:66.

 

White, A., et al., “Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; (CD000009).

 

Yanbaeva, D., et al., “Systemic effects of smoking,” Chest 2007; 131(5):1557-66.

 

Chapter 11: Stress

 

Aisen, P., “Anti-inflammatory therapy for Alzheimer’s disease: implications of the prednisone trial,” Acta Neurol Scand 2000; Suppl 176:85-9.

 

Anisman, H., et al., “Posttraumatic stress symptoms and salivary cortisol levels,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 2001; 158:1509-11.

 

Baker, J., et al., “The naturopathic approach to adrenal dysfunction,” Townsend Letter 2005; Feb/March, p. 59-62.

 

Barak, Y., “The immune system and happiness,” Autoimmune Rev 2006; 5(8):523-27.

 

Bassil, N., et al.., “Endocrine aspects of healthy brain aging,” in Desai, A., (Ed.) Healthy Brain Aging: Evidence Based Methods to Preserve Brain Function and Prevent Dementia, 2010; 26(1):57-74.

 

Bauer, M., et al., “Glucocorticoids and ageing of the immune system,” Stress 2005; 8(1):69-83.

 

Beer, J., et al., “Burnout and stress depression and self-esteem of teachers,” Psychol Rep 1992; 71(3 Pt 2):1331-36.

 

Black, P., “The inflammatory response is an integral part of the stress response: Implications for atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome X,” Brain Behav Immun 2003; 17(5):350-64.

 

Black, P., et al., “Stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease,” Jour Psychosom Res 2002; 52(1):1-23.

 

Brody, S., et al., “A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress,” Psychopharmacol (Berl) 2022; 159(3):319-24.

 

Buford, T., et al., “Impact of DHEA(S) and cortisol on immune function in aging: a brief review,” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2008; 33(3):429-33.

 

Bulijevac, D., et al., “Self-reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis” prospective study,” BJM 2003; 327(7416):646.

 

Carlson, L., et al., “Relationships among cortisol (CRT), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), and memory in a longitudinal study of healthy elderly men and women,” Neurobiol Aging 1999; 20(3):315-24.

 

Carpenter, L., et al., “Association between plasma IL-6 responses to acute stress and early-life adversity in healthy adults,” Neuropsychopharmacology 2010; 35:2617–23.

 

Carpi, M., et al., “Stress: It’s worse than you think,” Psychology Today, Jan. 1, 1996.

 

Carroll, B., et al., “Ageing, stress and the brain,” Novartis Found Symp 2002; 242:26-36.

 

Chiang, J., et al., “Negative and competitive social interactions are related to heightened

proinflammatory cytokine activity,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012; 109:1878–82.

 

Chrousos, G., et al., “A healthy body in healthy mind—and vice versa—the damaging power of ‘uncontrolled’ stress,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1998; 83(6):1842-45.

 

Cohen, S., “Psychological stress and susceptibility to upper respiratory infections,” Amer Jour Respire Crit Care Med 1995; 152(4 Pt. 2):53-8.

 

Cohen, S., “Psychological stress and susceptibility to upper respiratory infections,” Amer Jour Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 152(4 Pt. 2):53-58.

 

de Brouwer, S., et al., “Immune responses to stress after stress management training in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis Res Ther 2013; 15:R200.

 

de Quervain, D., et al., “Glucocorticoid-related genetic susceptibility for Alzheimer’s disease,” Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13(1):47-52.

 

Dedert, E., et al., “Religiosity may help preserve the cortisol rhythm in women with stress-related illness,” Int Jour Psych Med 2004; 34(1):61-77.

 

Delarue, J., et al., “Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men,” Diabetes Metabol 2003; 29(3):289-95.

 

Dhabhar, F., “Effects of stress on immune function: the good, the bad, and the beautiful,” Immunol Res 2014; 58:193–210.

 

Dhabhar, F., et al., “Stress-induced redistribution of immune cells—From barracks to boulevards to battlefields: a tale of three hormones–Curt Richter Award Winner,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012; 37:1345–68.

 

Elenkov, I., et al., “Stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, glucocorticoids, and the immune/inflammatory response: acute and chronic effects,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1999; 876:1-13.

 

Elenkov, I., et al., “Stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone; glucocorticoids, and the

immune/inflammatory response: acute and chronic effects,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1999; 876:1-13.

 

Elenkov, I., et al., “Systemic stress-induced Th2 shift and its clinical implications,” Int Rev Neurobiol 2002; 163-86.

 

Epel, E., et al., “Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress,” PNASA 2004; 101:17312-315.

 

Everly, G., “The development of a stress scale to assess behavioral health factors,” The Everly Stress and Symptom Inventory,” Adv Health Ed 1989; 2:71-86.

 

Fancourt, D., et al., “Singing modulates mood, stress, cortisol, cytokine and neuropeptide activity in cancer patients and carers,” Ecancermedicalscience 2016; 10:631.

 

Ferrari, E., et al., “Age-related changes of the adrenal secretory pattern: possible role of pathological brain aging,” Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2001; 37(1-3):294-300.

 

Fineberg, A., et al., “Inflammatory cytokines and neurological and neurocognitive alterations in the course of schizophrenia,” Biol Psychiatry 2013; 73:951–66.

 

Gouin, J., et al., “Chronic stress, daily stressors, and circulating inflammatory markers,” Health Psychol 2012; 31:264–68.

 

Gozansky, W., et al., “Salivary cortisol determined by enzyme immunoassay is preferable to serum total cortisol for assessment of dynamic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity,” Clinical Endocrinology 2005; 63:336-4.

 

Griffin, M., et al., “Enhanced cortisol suppression following dexamethasone administration in domestic violence survivors,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 2005; 162:192-99.

 

Head, K., et al., “Nutrients and botanicals for treatment of stress: adrenal fatigue, neurotransmitter imbalance, anxiety, and restless sleep,” Altern Med Rev 2009; 14(2):114-40.

 

Heim, C. et al., “Abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with chronic pelvic pain,” Psychosom Med 1998; 60:309-18.

 

Heim, C., et al., “The role of early adverse experience and adulthood stress in the production of neuroendocrine stress reactivity in women: a multiple regression analysis,” Depression Anxiety 2002; 15:117-25.

 

Jaremka, L., et al., “Synergistic relationships among stress, depression, and troubled relationships: insights from psychoneuroimmunology,” Depress Anxiety 2013; 30:288–96.

 

Jeffries, W., “Cortisol and immunity,” Med Hypotheses 1991; 34(3):198-208.

 

Jezova, D., et al., “Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteers,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2002; 53(3):337-48.

 

Karagkouni, A., et al., “Effect of stress on brain inflammation and multiple sclerosis,” Autoimmun Rev 2013; 12:947–953.

 

Karlamangla, A., et al., “Increase in epinephrine excretion is associated with cognitive decline in elderly men: MacArthur studies of successful aging,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005; 30(5):453-60.

 

Kelly, G., “Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress,” Alern Med Rev 1999; 4(4):249-65.

 

Kelly, G., “Rhodioila rosea: a possible plant adaptogen,” Altern Med Rev 2001; 6(3):293-65.

 

Kennedy, P., et al., “A sustained hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress in irritable bowel syndrome,” Psychol Med 2014; 44:3123–34.

 

Krahenbuhl, S., et al., “Kinetics and dynamics of orally administered 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1994; 78:581-85.

 

Krause, N., et al., “A descriptive epidemiology of lifetime trauma and the physical health status of older adults,” Psychol Ageing 2004; 19(4):637-48.

 

Kudielka B., et al., “Psychological and endocrine responses to psychological stress and dexamethasone/corticotrophin-releasing hormone in healthy postmenopausal women and young controls: the impact of age and a two-week estradiol treatment,” Neuroendocrinol 1999; 70:422-30.

 

Kunz-Ebrecht, S., et al., “Cortisol responses to mild psychological stress are inversely associated with proinflammatory cytokines,” Brain Behav Immun 2003; 17(5):373-83.

 

Lee, A., et al., “Psychological influences on the irritable bowel syndrome,” Minerva Med 2004; 95(5):443-50.

 

Lee, B., et al., “Association of salivary cortisol with cognitive function in the Baltimore memory study,” Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64:810-18.

 

Lerner, J., et al., “Facial expressions of emotion reveal neuroendocrine and cardiovascular stress responses,” Biol Psychiatr 2005; 58:743-50.

 

Lovallo, W., et al., “Psychophysiological reactivity: mechanisms and pathways to cardiovascular disease,” Psychosom Med 2003; 65(1):36-45.

 

Lupien, S., et al., “Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits,” Nature Neuroscience 1998; 1(12):69-73.

 

Lupien, S., et al., “The modulatory effects of corticosteroids on cognition: studies in young human populations,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2002; 27:401-16.

 

MacLean, C., et al., “Effects of Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice,” Psychoneuroendocrinol 1997; 22(4):277-95.

 

McEwen B., “Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain,” Physiol Rev 2007; 87:873-904.

 

McEwen, B., “Brain on stress: how the social environment gets under the skin,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012; 109:17180–185.

 

McLean, S., “Momentary relationship between cortisol secretion and symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52(11):3660-69.

 

Miller, G., et al., “If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans,” Psychological Bulletin 2007; 133:25-45.

 

Monteleone, P., et al., “Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 1992; 42(4):385-88.

 

Moret, Y., et al., “Survival for immunity: the price of immune system activation for bumblebee workers,” Science 2000; 290:1166–68.

 

Morey, J., et al., “Current directions in stress and human immune function,” Curr Opin Psychol 2015; 5:13-17.

 

Nasman, B., et al., “Abnormalities in adrenal androgens, but not of glucocorticoids, in early Alzheimer’s disease,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 1995; 20(1):83-94.

 

Newcomer, J., et al., “Decreased memory performance in healthy humans induced by stress-level cortisol treatment,” Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56:527-33.

 

Nielsen, N., et al., “Perceived stress and cause-specific mortality among men and women: results from a prospective cohort study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2008; 168(5):481-91.

 

Ohlin, B., et al., “Chronic psychosocial stress predicts long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged men,” Eur Heart Jour 2004; 25(1):867-73.

 

Padgett, D., et al., “How stress influences the immune response,” Trends Immunol 2003; 24:444-48.

 

Pawelec, G., et al., “Human immunosenescence: is it infectious?” Immunol Rev 2005; 205:257–68.

 

Pedersen, A., et al., “Psychological stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination: a meta-analysis,” Brain Behav Immun 2009; 23:427–33.

 

Peskind, E., et al., “Increased CSF cortisol in AD is a function of APOE genotype,:” Neurology 2001; 56(8):1094-98.

 

Peters, E., et al., “Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increase in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running,” Int Jour Sports Med 2001; 22(7):537-43.

 

Pruessner, J., et al., “Burnout, perceived stress and cortisol response to awakening,” Psychosom Med 1999; 61:197-204.

 

Raber, J., “Detrimental effects of chronic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. From obesity to memory deficits,” Mol Neurobiol 1998; 18(1):1-22.

 

Reiche, E., et al., “Stress, depression, the immune system, and cancer,” Lancet Oncol 2004; 5(10):617-25.

 

Riad-Fahmy, D., et al., “Salivary steroid assays for assessing variation in endocrine activity,” Jour Steroid Biochem 1983; 19:265-72.

 

Rohleder, N., “Acute and chronic stress induced changes in sensitivity of peripheral inflammatory pathways to the signals of multiple stress systems–2011 Curt Richter Award Winner,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012; 37:307–16.

 

Rosick, E., “Cortisol, stress, and health,” Life Extension 2005; Dec., p. 40-48.

 

Scott, L., et al., “Differences in adrenal steroid profile in chronic fatigue syndrome: in depression, and in health,” Jour Affect Disord 1999; 34:129-37.

 

Segerstrom, S., “Resources, stress, and immunity: an ecological perspective on human psychoneuroimmunology,” Ann Behav Med 2010; 40:114–25.

 

Segerstrom, S., et al., “Caregiving, repetitive thought, and immune response to vaccination in older adults,” Brain Behav Immun 2008; 22:744–52.

 

Segerstrom, S., et al., “Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry,” Psychol Bull 2004;130:601–30.

 

Segerstrom, S., et al., “Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry,” Psych Bull 2004; 130(4):601-30.

 

Selhub, E., “Stress and distress in clinical practice: a mind-body approach,” Nutr Clin Care 2002; 5:182-90.

 

Sephton, S., “Circadian disruption in cancer: A neuroendocrine-immune pathway from stress to disease?” Brain Behav Immun 2003; 17(5):321-28.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2010.

 

Steptoe, A., et al., “The effects of acute psychological stress on circulating inflammatory factors in humans: a review and meta-analysis,” Brain Behav Immun 2007; 21:901–12.

 

Stones, A., et al., “The effect of stress on salivary cortisol in panic disorder patients,” Jour Affect Disorders 1999; 52:197-201.

 

Straub, R., “Systemic disease sequelae in chronic inflammatory diseases and chronic psychological stress: comparison and pathophysiological model,” Ann NY Acad Sci 2014; 1318:7–17.

 

Swanwick, G., et al., “Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease: lack of association between cortisol and memory longitudinal and cross-sectional findings,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 1998; 155(2):286-89.

 

Tomiyama, A., et al., “Does cellular aging relate to patterns of allostasis?: an examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length,” Physiol Behav 2012; 106:40–5.

 

Tsolaki, M., et al., “Severe psychological stress in elderly individuals: a proposed model of neurodegeneration and its implications,” Amer Jour Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2009; 24:85-94.

 

Van der Kolk, B., “The psychobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder,” Jour Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58(9):16-24.

 

Vedhara, K., et al., “Acute stress, memory, attention, and cortisol,” Psychoneuroendocrinol 2000; 25:535-49.

 

Vining, R., et al., “Salivary cortisol: a better measurement of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol,” Amer Clin Biochem 1983; 20:329-35.

 

Vitlic, A., et al., “Stress, ageing and their influence on functional, cellular and molecular aspects of the immune system,” Age 2014; 36:1169–85.

 

Vrijkotte, T., et al., “Work stress and metabolic and hemostatic risk factors,” Psychosom Med 1999; 61:796-805.

 

Whipple, M., et al., “Hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and carotid atherosclerosis in women: The Study of Women’s health Across the Nation (SWAN) heart study,” Stroke 2009; 40:3166-72.

 

Wichmann, S., et al., “Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017; 83:135-41.

 

Wikgren, M., et al., “Short telomeres in depression and the general population are associated with a hypocortisolemic state,” Biol Psychiatry 2012; 71(4):294-300.

 

Wilson, J., Adrenal Fatigue. Petaluma, CA: Smart Publications, 2001.

 

Wilson, R., et al., “Chronic distress, age-related neuropathology, and late-life dementia,” Psychosom Med 2007; 69:47-53.

 

Wilson, R., et al., “Proneness to psychological distress is associated with risk of Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurology 2003; 61(11):1479-85.

 

Wong, S., et al., “Chronic psychosocial stress: does it modulate immunity to the influenza vaccine in Hong Kong Chinese elderly caregivers?” Age 2012; 35:1479–93.

 

Yehuda, R., et al., “Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in holocaust survivors with and without PTSD,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 2005; 162:998-1000.

 

Chapter 12: Sugar

 

Appleton, N., Lick The Sugar Habit. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1995.

Appleton, N., Suicide by Sugar. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2009.

 

Blacklock, N., et al., “Sucrose and idopathic renal stone,” Nutr and Health, 1987; 5:9-17.

 

Bunn, F., et al., “Reaction of monosaccharides with protein possible evolutionary significance,” Science 1981; 213:222-24.

 

Cerami, A., et., al., “Glucose and aging,” Sci Amer 1987; May, p. 90.

 

Choundhary, A., et al., “The debate over neurotransmitter interaction in aspartame usage,” Jour Clin Neurosci 2018; 56:7-15.

 

Christensen, L., et al., “The role of caffeine and sugar in depression,” The Nutr Report 1991; 9(3):17-24.

 

Couizy, F., et al., “Nutritional implications of the interaction between minerals,” Progressive Food and Nutr Sci 1933; 17:65-87.

 

Di Nicolantonio, J., et al., “Sugar addiction: Is It Real? A Narrative Review,” Brit Jour Sports Med 2018; 52(14):910-13.

 

Fields, M., et al., “Effect of copper deficiency on metabolism and mortality in rats fed sucrose or starch diets,” Jour of Clin Nutr 1983; 113:1335-45.

 

Fitch, C., et al., “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners,” Jour Acad Nutr Diet 2012; 112(5):739-58.

 

Fong, D., et al., “Diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 2003; 1:226-29.

 

Gardner, L.., et al., “Effects of dietary carbohydrate on fasting levels of human growth hormone and cortisol,” Proceedings of the Soc for Exper Biol and Med 1982; 36-40.

 

Goldman, J., et al., “Behavioral effects of sucrose on preschool children,” Jour of Abnor Child Psychol 1986: 14:565-77.

 

Hodges, R., et al., “Carbohydrates and blood pressure,” Ann of Int Med 1983; 98:838-41.

 

Keaton, K., et al., “The sweet road to gallstones,” Brit Med Jour 1984; 288:1103-04.

 

Knuppel, A., et al., “Sugar intake from sweet food and beverages, common mental disorder and depression: prospective findings from the Whitehall II study,” Sci Rep 2017; 7:6287.

 

Kozlovsky, A., et al., “Effects of diets high in simple sugars on urinary chromium loses,” Metabolism 1986; 35:515-18.

 

Krohn, J., et al., “Aspartame and attention deficit disorder,” Pediatrics 1994; October, p. 576.

 

Kruis, W., et al., “Effects of diets low and high in refined sugars on gut transit, bile acid metabolism and bacterial fermentation,” Gut 1991; 32:367-70.

 

Kulczychyi, A., et al., “Aspartame-Induced Hives,” Journ of Allergy and Clin Immun 1995; 2:639-40.

 

Lee, A., et al., “Modifications of proteins and nucleic acids by reducing sugars: possible role in aging,” Handbook of the Biology of Aging. New York: Academic Press, 1990.

 

Lemann, J., et al., “Evidence that glucose ingestion inhibits net renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and magnesium,” Jour of Clin Nutr 1967; 70:236-45. 

 

Lenoir, M., et al., “Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward,” PLoS One 2007; 2(8):e698.

 

Makinen, K., et al., “Xylitol chewing gums and caries rates: a 40-month cohort study,” Jour Dent Res 1995; 74(12):1904-13.

 

Marinovich, M., et al., “Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues,” Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 60:109-15.

 

Mindell, E., and Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

 

Moser, R., et al., “Aspartame and memory loss,” JAMA 1994; 272(19):1543.

 

Myers, A., “Sugar free, cancer free?” Nutrition 2012; 28(10):1036.

 

Natah, S., et al., “Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65(4):947-50.

 

Olszewski, P., et al., “Excessive consumption of sugar: An insatiable drive for reward,” Curr Nutr rep 2019; 8(2):120-28.

 

Pamplona, R., et al., “Mechanisms of glycation in atherogenesis,” Med Hypotheses 1990; 40:174-81.

 

Quillin, P., Beating Cancer With Nutrition. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Nutrition Times Press, 2001, p. 103-12. 

 

Reiser, S., et al., “Effects of dietary sugars on metabolic risk factors associated with heart disease,” Nutr Health 1985; 3:203-16.

 

Reiser, S., et al., “Effects of sugars on indices on glucose tolerance in humans,” Amer Jour of Clin Nutr 1986; 43:151-159.

 

Ringsdorf, W., et al., “Sucrose neutrophilic phagocytosis and resistance to disease,” Dental Survey 1976; 52:46-48.

 

Sanchez., A., et al., “Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis,” Amer Jour of Clin Nutr 1973; 1180-84. 

 

Scanto, S., et al., “The effect of dietary sucrose on blood lipids, serum insulin, platelet adhesiveness and body weight in human volunteers,”: Postgrad Med Jour 1969; 45:602-07.

 

Shafer, R., et al., “Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1987; 45(4):744-47.

 

Sharma, A., et al., “artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe,” Indian Jour Pharmacol 2016; 48(3):237-40.

 

Shaywitz, B., et al., “Aspartame and seizures,” Neurology 1993; 143:630-31.

 

Sheridan, F., et al., “Are you sugar smart?” Amer Fitness 1991; March-April, p.34-8.

 

Simmons, J., et al., “Is the sand of time sugar?” Longevity 1990; June 10, p.49-53.

 

United States Sugar Policy: An Analysis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Printing Office, 1989.

 

Voreacos, D., “Experts tell panel of continued concern over use of aspartame,” Los Angeles Times, November 4, 1987, p. 19.

 

Yudkin, J., et al., “Dietary fat and dietary sugar,” Lancet, 1964; August 29, p. 478-79.

 

Yudkin, J., et al., “Effects of high dietary sugar,” Brit Jour of Med 1980; 281:1396.

 

Yudkin, J., et al., “Metabolic changes induced by sugar in relation to coronary heart disease and diabetes,” Nutrit and Health 1987; 5(1-2):5-8. 

 

Chapter 13: Thyroid

 

Abraham, G., et al., “The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice,” The Original Internist April 2004.

 

Adlin, V., et al., “Subclinical hypothyroidism: deciding when to treat,” Amer Fam Physician 1998; 57(4):776-80.

 

Al-Abed, Y., et al., “Thyroxine is a potential endogenous antagonist of macrophage migration inhibitory factor. (MIF) activity,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108:8224–27.

 

Alamino, V., et al., “Dendritic cells exposed to triiodothyronine deliver pro-inflammatory signals and amplify IL-17-driven immune responses,” Cell Physiol Biochem 2019; 52:354–67.

 

Anker, G. et al., “Thyroid function in  post-menopausal breast cancer patients treated with Tamoxifen,” Scand Jour Clin Labor Invest 1998; 58:103-07.

 

Anyetei-Anum, C., et al., “Thyroid hormone receptor localization in target tissues,” Jour Endocrinol 2018; 237:R19–R34.

 

Arnold, L., “Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” Ann NY Acad Sci 2001; 931:310-41.

 

Artyomov, M., et al., “Integrating immunometabolism and macrophage diversity,” Semin Immunol 2016; 28:417–24.

 

Astapova, I., et al., “Role of co-regulators in metabolic and transcriptional actions of thyroid hormone,” Jour Mol Endocrinol 2016; 56:73–97.

 

Berger, N., et al., “Influence of selenium supplementation on the post-traumatic alterations of the thyroid axis: a placebo-controlled trial,” Intensive Care Med 2001; 27(1):91-100.

 

Bernal, J., et al., “Thyroid hormone transporters-functions and clinical implications,” Nat Rev Endocrinol 2015; 11:690.

 

Berry, M., et al., “The role of selenium in thyroid hormone action,” Endocrine Rev 1992; 13:207-20.

 

Biondi, B., et al., “Combination treatment with T4 and T3: toward personalized replacement therapy in hypothyroidism,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97(7):2256-71.

 

Brownstein, D., Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can’t Live Without It. Medical Alternatives Press, 2004.

 

Brucker-David, F., “Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function,” Thyroid 1998; 8(9):827-56.

 

Bunevicious, R., et al., “Effect of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism,” NEJM 1994; 340(6):424-29.

 

Campbell, N., et al., “Ferrous sulfate reduces thyroxine efficacy in patients with hypothyroidism,” Ann Intern Med 1992; 117(12):1010-13.

 

Cappola, A., et al., “Hypothyroidism and atherosclerosis,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88:2438-44.

 

Chen, Y., “Thyroid hormone enhances nitric oxide-mediated bacterial clearance and promotes survival after meningococcal infection,” PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e41445.

 

Christianson, A., and Murray, M., Hypothyroidism. In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone, 2013.

 

Contreras-Jurado, C., et al., “The thyroid hormone receptors inhibit hepatic interleukin-6 signaling during endotoxemia,” Sci Rep 2016; 6:30990.

 

Coria, M., et al., “Hypothyroidism modifies lipid composition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes,” Cell Physiol Biochem 2012; 29:713–24.

 

Curi, R., et al., “A past and present overview of macrophage metabolism and functional outcomes,” Clin Sci 2017; 131:1329–42.

 

Davis, P., et al., “Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone,” Nat Rev Endocrinol 2016; 12:111–21.

 

De Vito, P., et al., “Thyroid hormones as modulators of immune activities at the cellular level,” Thyroid 2011; 21(8):879-90.

 

Dedecjus, M., et al., “Thyroid hormones influence human dendritic cells' phenotype, function, and subsets distribution,” Thyroid 2011; 21:533–40.

 

DeGroot, L., Endocrinology. 5th Ed., Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2006.

 

del Mar Montesinos, M., et al., “Thyroid hormone action on innate immunity,” Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019; 10:350.

 

Dominguez-Andres, J., et al., “The itaconate pathway is a central regulatory node linking innate immune tolerance and trained immunity,” Cell Metab 2019; 29:211–20.

 

Ebbo, M., et al., “Innate lymphoid cells: major players in inflammatory diseases,” Nat Rev Immunol 2017; 17:665–78.

 

Esposito, S., et al., “The thyroid axis and mood disorders: overview and future prospects,” Psychopharmacol Bull 1997; 33:205-17.

 

Evans, T., “Thyroid disease,” Prim Care 2003; 30:625-40.

 

Feidt-Rasmussen, U., et al., “Effect of clomifene on thyroid function in normal men,” Acta Endocrinol 1979; 90(1):43-51.

 

Gigena, N., et al., “Dissecting thyroid hormone transport and metabolism in dendritic cells,” Jour Endocrinol 2017; 232:337–50.

 

Gold, M., et al., “Hypothyroidism and depression, evidence from complete thyroid function evaluation,” JAMA 1981; 245:1919-22.

 

He, X., et al., “Functional magnetic resource imaging assessment of altered brain function in hypothyroidism during working memory processing,” Eur Jour Endocrinol 2011; 164(6):951-59.

 

Hertoghe, J., et al., “Thyroid insufficiency. Is thyroxine the only valuable drug?” Jour Nutr Environ Med 2001; 11:159-66.

 

Hoeksema, M., et al., “Nature and nurture of tissue-specific macrophage phenotypes,” Atherosclerosis 2019; 281:159–67.

 

Kirkegaard, C., et al., “Studies on the influence of biogenic amines and psychoactive drugs on the prognostic value of TRH stimulation test in endogenous depression,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 1977; 2(2):131-36.

 

Kmiec, Z., et al., “Natural killer activity and thyroid hormone levels in young and elderly persons,” Gerontology 2001; 47:282–88.

 

Kohrle, J., “The deiodinase family, selenoenzymes regulating thyroid hormone availability and action,” Cell Mol Life Sci 2000; 57:1853-63.

 

Kowalik, M., et al., “Thyroid hormones, thyromimetics and their metabolites in the treatment of liver disease,” Front Endocrinol 2018; 9:382.

 

Krupsky, M., et al., “Musculoskeletal symptoms as a presenting sign of long-standing hypothyroidism,” Isr Jour Med Sci 1987; 23:1110-13.

 

Kwakkel, J., et al., “A novel role for the thyroid hormone-activating enzyme type 2 deiodinase in the inflammatory response of macrophages,” Endocrinology 2014; 155:2725–34.

 

Lange, U., et al., Thyroid disorders in female patients with ankylosing spondylitis,” Eur Jour Med Res 1999; 4(11):468-74.

 

Lazarus, J., et al., “Lithium therapy and thyroid function: A long-term study,” Psychol Med 1981; 11(1):85-92.

 

Leung, A., et al., “Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes Obes 2012; 19(5):414-19.

 

Leznoff, A., et, al., “Syndrome of idiopathic chronic urticaria and angioedema with thyroid autoimmuity: a study of 90 patients,” Jour of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1989; 84(1):66-71.

 

Lima, F., et al., “Regulation of microglial development: a novel role for thyroid hormone,” Jour Neurosci 2001; 21:2028–38.

 

Little, J., “Effect of thyroid hormone supplementation on survival after bacterial infection,” Endocrinology 1985; 117:1431–35.

 

Louzada, R., et al., “Similarities and differences in the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones and their metabolites,” Front Endocrinol 2018; 9:394.

 

Magsino, C., et al., “Effect of triiodothyronine on reactive oxygen species generation by leukocytes, indices of oxidative damage, and antioxidant reserve,” Metabolism 2000; 49:799–803.

 

Marino, F., et al., “Thyroid hormone regulation of cell migration and oxidative metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: clinical evidence in thyroidectomized subjects on thyroxine replacement therapy,” Life Sci 2006; 78:1071–77.

 

Mascanfroni, I., et al., “Control of dendritic cell maturation and function by triiodothyronine,” FASEB Jour 2008; 22:1032–42.

 

Mascanfroni, I., et al., “Nuclear factor. (NF)-kappaB-dependent thyroid hormone receptor beta1 expression controls dendritic cell function via Akt signaling,” Jour Biol Chem 2010; 285:9569–82.

 

Meinhold, H., et al., “Effects of selenium and iodine deficiency on iodothyronine deiodinases in brain, thyroid and peripheral tissue,” JAMA 1992; 19:8-12.

 

Mezosi, E., et al., “Nongenomic effect of thyroid hormone on free-radical production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes,” Jour Endocrinol 2005; 185:121–29.

 

Mndoza, A., et al., “New insights into thyroid hormone action,” Pharmacol Ther 2017; 173:135–45.

 

Mooij, P., et al., “Effect of thyroid hormones and other iodinated compounds on the transition of monocytes into veiled/dendritic cells: role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumour-necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6,” Jour Endocrinol 1994; 140:503–12.

 

Mori, Y., et al., “Effects of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine on microglial functions,” Glia 2015; 63:906–20.

 

Mortaz, E., et al., “Update on neutrophil function in severe inflammation,” Front Immunol 2018; 9:2171.

 

Neeck, G., et al., “Neuroendocrine perturbations in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome,” Rheum Dis Clin North Amer 2000; 26(4):989-1002. 

 

Nelis, G., et al., “The effect of oral cimetidine on the basal and stimulated values of prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone,” Postgrad Med Jour 1980; 56(651):26-9.

 

Netea, M., et al., “Innate immune memory: a paradigm shift in understanding host defense,” Nat Immunol 2015; 16:675–79.

 

Newman, C., et al., “Amiodarone and the thyroid: A practical guide to the management of thyroid dysfunction induced by amiodarone therapy,” Heart 1998; 79:121-27.

 

Nishiyama, S. et al., “Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in disabled patients with zinc deficiency,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1994; 13:62-7.

 

Nishiyama, S., et al., “Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in disabled patients with zinc deficiency,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1994; 13(1):62-7.

 

Northcutt, R., et al., “The influence of cholestyramine on thyroxine absorption,” JAMA 1969; 208(10):1857-61.

 

Ortiga-Carvalho, T., et al., “Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis,” Compr Physiol 2016; 6:1387–428.

 

O'Sullivan, T., et al., “Natural killer cell memory,” Immunity 2015; 43:634–45.

 

Penkov, S., et al., “Immunometabolic crosstalk: an ancestral principle of trained immunity?” Trends Immunol 2019; 40:1–11.

 

Perrotta, C., et al., “The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine controls macrophage maturation and functions: protective role during inflammation,” Amer Jour Pathol 2014; 184:230–47.

 

Provinciali, M., et al., “Thyroxine-dependent modulation of natural killer activity,” Jour Exp Pathol 1987; 3:617–22.

 

Rivas, M., et al., “Thyroid hormones, learning and memory,” Genes, Brain Behavior 2007; 6(Suppl 1): 40-44.

 

Rootwelt, K., et al., “Effect of carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbitone on serum levels of thyroid hormones and thyrotropin in humans,”  Scand Jour Clin Lab Invest 1978; 38(8):731-36.

 

Ruytinx, P., et al., “Chemokine-induced macrophage polarization in inflammatory conditions,” Front Immunol 2018; 9:1930.

 

Sherman, S., et al., “Sucralfate causes malabsorption of L-thyroxine,” Amer Jour Med 1994; 96(6):531-35. 

 

Singh N., et al., “Effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of levothyroxine,” JAMA 2000; 283(21):2822-25.

 

Smith, J., et al., “Thyroid hormones, brain function and cognition: a brief review,” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2002; 26:45-60.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Thyroid Disorders, Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

 

Sperber, A., et al., “Evidence for interference with the intestinal absorption of levothyroxine sodium by aluminum hydroxide,” Arch Intern Med 1992; 152(1):183-84.

 

Stocks, C., et al., “For when bacterial infections persist: toll-like receptor-inducible direct antimicrobial pathways in macrophage,” Jour Leukoc Biol 2018; 103:35–51.

 

Szabo, J., et al., “Parameters of respiratory burst and arachidonic acid metabolism in polymorphonuclear granulocytes from patients with various thyroid diseases,” Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996; 104:172–76.

 

Takasu, N., et al., “Rifampin-induced hypothyroidism in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,” NEJM 2005; 352(5):518-19.

 

Tariq, A., et al., “Effects of long-term combination LT4 and LT3 therapy for improving hypothyroidism and overall quality of life,” South Med Jour 2018; 111(6):363-69.

 

Tseng, A., et al., “Interaction between ritonavir and levothyroxine,” AIDS 1998; 12(16):2235-6.

 

van der Spek, A., et al., “Regulation of intracellular triiodothyronine is essential for optimal macrophage function,” Endocrinology 2018; 159:2241–52.

 

van der Spek, A., et al., “The thyroid hormone inactivating type 3 deiodinase is essential for optimal neutrophil function: observations from three species,” Endocrinology 2018; 159:826–35.

 

van der Spek, A., et al., “Thyroid hormone metabolism in innate immune cells,” Jour Endocrinol 2017; 232:R67–R81.

 

Varol, C., et al., “Macrophages: development and tissue specialization,” Annu Rev Immunol 2015; 33:643–75.

 

Vivier, E., et al., “Natural killer cells: from basic research to treatments,” Front Immunol 2011; 2:18.

 

Wartofsky, L., “Combination L-T3 and L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism,” Curr Opin Endocrinology Diabetes Obes 1013; 20(5):460-66.

 

Wartofsky, L., et al., “The evidence for a narrower thyrotropin reference range is compelling,” Jour Clin Endo Met 2005; 90(9):5483-88.

 

Williams, G., et al., “Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone: local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase,” Jour Endocrinol 2011; 209:261–72.

 

Woeber, K., “Levothyroxine therapy and serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine concentrations,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 2002; 25(2):106-09.

 

Worbs, T., et al., “Dendritic cell migration in health and disease,” Nat Rev Immunol 2017; 17:30–48.

 

Yatim, K., et al., “A brief journey through the immune system,” Clin Jour Amer Soc Nephrol 2015; 10:1274–81.

 

Chapter 14: Water

 

Armstrong, L., et al., “Distinguishing low and high water consumers--A paradigm of disease risk,” Nutrients 2020; 12(3):858.

 

Armstrong, L., et al., “Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women,” Jour Nutr 2012; 142(2):882-88.

 

Batmanghelidj, F., Water for Health, for Healing, for Life. New York: Warner Books, 2003.

 

Cohen, D., Bria, G., Quench: Beat Fatigue, Drop Weight, and Heal Your Body Through the Science of Optimum Hydration. New York: Hachette Books, 2018.

 

Ganio, M., et al., “Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men,” Brit Jour Nutr 2011; 106(10):1535-43.

 

Manz, F., “Hydration and disease,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2007; 26(5 Suppl):535S-541S.

 

Manz, F., et al., “The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic disease,” Nutr Rev 2005; 63(6 Pt 2):S2-S5.

 

Ritz, P., et al., “The importance of good hydration for day-to-day health,” Nutr Rev 2005; 63(6 Pt 2):S6-S13.

 

PART 3

 

Introduction

 

Calder, P., “Feeding the immune system,” Proc Nutr Soc 2013; 72(3):299-309.

 

Wu, D., et al., “Nutritional modulation of immune function: Analysis of evidence, mechanisms, and clinical relevance,” Front Immunol 2019; 9:3160.

 

Wintergerst, E., Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function,” Ann Nutr Metab 2007; 51(4):301-23.

 

HERBAL THERAPIES

 

Astragalus

 

Chen, D., “Effects of JinShuiBao capsule on the quality of life of patients with heart failure,” Jour Admin Trad Chin Med 1995; 5:40–3.

 

Das, S., “Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects,” Fitoterapia 2010; 81:961–68.

 

Huang, B., et al., “Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on steroidogenesis in normal mouse Leydig cells,” Life Sci2001; 69:2593–2602.

 

Hyun, H., “Chemical ingredient of Cordyceps militaris,” Mycobiology 2008; 36:233–35.

 

Lee, E., et al., “Cordycepin suppresses TNF-alpha-induced invasion, migration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human bladder cancer cells,” Phytother Res2010; 24:1755–61.

 

Lee, J., et al., “Anti-cancer effects of cordycepin on oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferation and apoptosis in vitro,” Jour Cancer Ther2011; 2:224–34.

 

Lee, Y., et al., “Cordycepin inhibits UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression by suppressing the NF-KB pathway in human dermal fibroblasts,” Exp Mol Med 2009; 41:548–54.

 

Ng, T., et al., Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2005; 57(12):1509-19.

 

Patel, S., et al., “Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review,” 3 Biotech2012; 2:1–15.

 

Rao, Y., “Constituents isolated from Cordyceps militaris suppress enhanced inflammatory mediator’s production and human cancer cell proliferation,” Jour Ethnopharmacol2010; 131:363–67.

 

Rouse, J., “Herbal support for adrenal function,” Clin Nutri Insights 1998; 6(9):1-2.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Tuli, H., et al., “Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin,” 3 Biotech 2014; 4(1):1-12.

 

Yue, K., “The genus Cordyceps: a chemical and pharmacological review,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 65(4):474-93.

 

Zaidman, B., et al., “Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol2005; 67:453–68.

 

Zhang, G., “Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Triccholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol2006; 72:1152–56.

 

Zhang, H., et al., “Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014; Issue 12. No.: CD008353.

 

Zhou, J., et al., “The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: cordyceps sinensis,” Jour Altern Complem Med1998; 4:429–57.

 

Zhou, X., “Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2008; 36:967–80.

 

Zhou, X., “Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products,” Jour Pharm Pharmcol 2009; 61:279–91.

 

Zhu, J., “The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: cordyceps sinensis: part I,” Jour Altern Complem Med 1998; 4:289–303.

 

Echinacea

 

Ardjomand-Woelkart, K., et al., “Review and Assessment of Medicinal Safety Data of Orally Used Echinacea Preparations,” Planta Med 2016; 82(1-2):17-31.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Brinkeborn, R., et al., “Echinaforce and other echinacea fresh plant preparations in the treatment of the common cold. A randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial,” Phytomedicine 1999; 6:1–6.

 

Budzinski, J., et al., “An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures,” Phytomedicine 2000; 7:273–82.

 

Dorn, M., et al., “Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory tract infections,” Com Ther Med 1997; 3:40-42.

 

Dorn, M., et al., “Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory infections,” Complement Ther Med 1997; 5:40–2.

 

Freeman, C., et al., “A critical evaluation of drug interactions with Echinacea spp.,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52(7):789-98.

 

Glesson, M., et al., “Nutritional strategies to minimize exercise-induced immunosuppression in athletes,” Can Jour Appl Physiol 2001; 26(Suppl): S23-S35.

 

Grimm, W., et al., “A randomized controlled trial of the effects of fluid extract of echinacea pur-pura on the frequency and severity of colds and respiratory infections,” Amer Jour Med 1999; 106:138–43.

 

Hoheisel, O., et al., “Echinagard treatment shortens the course of the common cold: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Eur J Clin Res 1997; 9:261–69.

 

Melchart, D., et al., “Echinacea root extracts for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial,” Arch Fam Med 1998; 7:541–45.

 

Mills, S., et al., Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

Nahas, R., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold,” Can Fam Physician 2011; 57(1):31-6.

 

Shah, S., et al., “Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7(7):473-80.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Sterer, N., et al., “Oral malodor reduction via palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation,” Jour Dent 2008; 36(7):535-39.

 

Sucapowal, A., et al., “Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial,” Eur Jour Med Res 2009; 14(9):406-12.

 

Tiralongo, E., et al., “Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of echinacea supplementation in air travellers,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 20120:182.

 

Ulbright, C., et al., Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference. St. Louis: Mosby, 2005.

 

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc. 2000.

 

Woelkart, K., et al., “Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold,” Planta Med 2008; 74(6):633-37.

 

Zhai, Z., et al., “Echinacea increases arginase activity and has anti-inflammatory properties in RAW264.7 macrophage cells, indicative of alternative macrophage activation,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2009; 122(1):976-85.

 

Elderberry

 

Badescu, M., et al., “Effects of Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa extracts on immune system disorders within diabetes mellitus,” Pharm Biol 2015; 53:533–39.

 

Barak, V., et al., “The effect of Sambucol, a black Elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines,” Eur Cytokine Netw 2001; 12(2):290-96.

 

de Pascual-Teresa, S., et al., “Flavanols and anthocyanins in cardiovascular health: a review of current evidence,” Int Jour Mol Sci 2010; 11:1679–1703.

 

Gray, A., “The traditional plant treatment, Sambucus nigra (elder), exhibits insulin-like and insulin-releasing actions in vitro,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130:15–20.

 

Hawkins, J., et al., “Black elderberry (Sambucus Nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials,” Complement Ther Med 2019; 42:361-65.

 

Hearst, C., et al., “Antibacterial activity of elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower or berry against hospital pathogens,” Jour Med Plants Res 2010; 4:1805–09.

 

Kinoshita, E., et al., “Anti-influenza virus effects elderberry juice and its fractions,” Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2012; 76(9):1633-38.

 

Kong, F., “Pilot clinical study on a proprietary elderberry extract: Efficacy in addressing influenza symptoms,” Online Jour Pharmacol Pharmacokinet 2009; 5:32–43.

 

Krawitz, C., et al., “Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:16.

 

Krawitz, C., et al., “Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:182.

 

Mahmoudi, M., et al., “Antidepressant activities of Sambucus ebulus and Sambucus nigra,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2014; 18:3350–53.

 

Netzel, M., “The excretion and biological antioxidant activity of elderberry antioxidants in healthy humans,” Food Res Int 2005; 38:905–10.

 

Porter, R., et al., “A review of the antiviral properties of Black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) products,” Phytother Res 2017; 31(4):533-54.

 

Raus, K., et al., “Effect of an Echinacea-based hot drink versus Oseltamivir in influenza treatment: A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, noninferiority clinical trial,” Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2015; 77:66–72.

 

Roschek, B., et al., “Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1NI infection in Vitro,” Phytochemistry 2009; 70(10):1255-61.

 

Roxas, M., et al., “Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations,” Altern Med Rev 2007; 12:25–48.

 

Tiralong, E., et al., “Elderberry supplementation reduces cold duration and symptoms in air-travelers: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Nutrients 2016; 8(4):182.

 

Torabian, G., et al., “Anti-influenza activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra),” Jour Functional Foods 2019; 54:353-60.

 

Vlachojannis, J., et al., “A systematic review on the Sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles,” Phytother Res 2010; 24(1):1-8.

 

Vlachojannis, J., et al., “A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles,” Phytother Res 2010; 24:1–8.

 

Zafra-Stone, S., et al., “Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2007; 51:675–83.

 

Zakay-Rones, Z., et al., Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections,” Jour Inter Med Res 2004; 32(2):132-40.

 

Garlic

 

Ackermann, R., et al., “Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors,” Arch Inter Med 2001; 151:813-24.

 

Adler, A., et al., “Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65(2):445-50. 

 

Arora, R., et al., “Comparative effects of clofibrate, garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia,” Atherosclerosis 1981; 39: 447-52.

 

Arora, R., et al., “The long-term use of garlic in ischemic heart disease,” Atherosclerosis 1981; 40:175-79.

 

Asdaq, S., et al., “Potential of garlic and its active constituent, S-allyl cysteine, as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in presence of captopril,” Photomed 2010; 17:1016-26.

 

Banergiee, S., et al., “Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review,” Nutr Jour 2002; 1:4.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Bordia, A., et al., “Effect of essential oil of garlic on serum fibrinalytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease,” Atheroselerosis 1977; 28:155.

 

Bordia, A., et al., “Essential oil of garlic on blood lipids and fibribolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease,” Jour Assoc Phys Ind 1978; 26:327-33.

 

Borek, C., “Antioxidant health effect of aged garlic extract,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131:1010S-1015S.

Boullin, D., “Garlic as a platelet inhibitor,” Lancet 1981; 1: 776-77.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Burnham, B., “Garlic as a possible risk for postoperative bleeding,” Plast Recon Surg 1995; 95:213.

 

Chen, C., et al., “Induction of detoxifying enzymes by garlic organosulfur compounds through transcription factor Nrf2: effect of chemical structure and stress signals,” Free Radic Biol Med 2004; 37(10):1578-90.

 

Chi, M., et al., “Effect of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard,” Jour Nutr 1982; 112:41-48.

 

Chutani, s., et al., “The effect of fried versus Raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man,” Atherosclerosis 1988; 38:417-21.

 

Crayhon, R., Robert Crayhon’s Nutrition Made Simple New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 1994.

 

Davis, L., et al., “In vitro synergism of concentrated Allium sativum extract and amphotericin B against Cryptococcus neoformans,” Planta Med 1994; 60(6):546-49.

 

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355:134-38.

 

Gebhardt, R., et al., “Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte culture,” Lipids 1996; 31:1269-76.

 

Harenberg, J., et al., “Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia,” Atherosclerosis 1988; 74:247-29.

 

Harris, J., et al., “Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic),” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2001; 57(3):282-86.

 

Hattori, A., eta l., “Antidiabetic effects of ajoene in genetically diabetic KK-A(y) mice,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminal 2005; 51(5):382-40.

 

Jarrell, S., et al., “Effects of wild garlic (allium ursinum) on blood pressure in systolic hypertension,” Jour Amer Coll Nur 1996; 15:532.

 

Josling, P., “Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survery,” Adv Ther 2001; 18(4):189-93.

 

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

 

Legnani, C., et al., “Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects,” Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43:119-22.

 

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

 

McMahon, F., et al. “Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study,” Pharmacotherapy 1993; 13:406–407.

 

Orckhov, A., et al., “Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis,” Nutrition 1997; 13:656–63.

 

Pedraza-Chaverri, J., et al. “Garlic prevents hypertension induced by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis,” Life Sci 1998; 62:71–7

.

Ried, K., et al., “Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 67(1):64-70.

 

Ried, K., et al., “Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis,” Nutr Rev 2013; 71(5):282-99.

 

Rountree, R., Immunotics. New York, NY: Berkley Publishing Group, 2000.

 

Sendl, A., et al., “Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in vitro by extracts and isolated compounds prepared from garlic and wild garlic,” Atherosclerosis 1992; 94:79–86

.

Silagy, C, et al. “A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure,” Jour Hypertens 1994; 12:463–68.

 

Srivsatava, K., “Evidence for the mechanism by which garlic inhibitors platelet aggregation,” Prostaglandin Leukot Med 1986; 22: 13-21.

 

Steiner, M., et al., “Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998; 31:904-08.

 

Sunter, W., “Warfarin and garlic,” Pharm Jour 1991; 246:722.

 

Vanderhock, J., et al., “Inhibition of fatty acid oxygenases by onion and garlic acts. Evidence for the mechanism by which these oils inhibit platelet aggregation,” Biochem Pharmacol 1980; 29:3169-73.

 

Yang, C., et al., “Mechanisms of inhibition of chemical toxicity and carcinogenesis by diallyl sulfide (DAS) and related compounds from garlic,” Jour Nutr 2001; 13193):S1041-S1045.

 

You, W., et al., “Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81(2):162-64.

 

Youn, H., et al., “Garlic (Allium sativum) extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptors for dimerization,” Bio Psy Bio Technol Bio Chem 2008; 72(2):368-75.

 

Yu-Yan, Y., et al., “Cholesterol lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131:989S-993S.

 

Ginseng

 

American Ginseng

 

Adams, L., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine: applications and implications for cognitive functioning in elderly populations,” Alt Ther 2000; 7(2):52-61.

 

Andrade, A., et al., “Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2008; 8:50.

 

Ang-Lee, M., et al., “Herbal medicines and perioperative care,” JAMA 2001; 286(2):208-26.

 

Barton, D., et al., “Pilot study of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding evaluation: NCCTG trial N03CA,” Support Care Cancer 2010;

18(2):179-87.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Carai, M., et al., “Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism,” Fitoterapia 2000; 71:S38-S42.

 

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

 

Dey, L., et al., “Anti-hyperglycemic effects of ginseng: comparison between root and berry,” Phytomedicine 2003; 10(6-7):600-05.

 

Dougherty, U., et al., “American ginseng suppresses Western diet-promoted tumorigenesis in model of inflammation-associated colon cancer: role of EGFR,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:111.

 

Fu, Y., et al., “Chronic ginseng consumption attenuates age-associated oxidative stress in rats,” Jour Nutr 2003; 133(11):3603-09.

 

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

 

Hsu, C., et al., “American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2005; 11(34):5327-31.

 

Ichikawa, T., et al., “American ginseng preferentially suppresses STAT/iNOS signaling in activated macrophages,” Jour Ethnopharmocal 2009; 125(1):145-50.

 

Izzo, A., et al., “Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review,” Drugs 2001; 61(15):2163-75.

 

Karmazyn, M., et al., “Therapeutic potential of ginseng in the management of cardiovascular disorders,” Drugs 2011; 71(15):1989-2008.

 

King, M., et al., “Extraction-dependent effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on human breast cancer cell proliferation and estrogen receptor activation,” Integr Cancer Ther 2006; 5(3):236-43.

 

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

 

Lyon, M., et al., “Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolius and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study,” Jour Psychiatry Neurosci 2001; 26(3):221-28.

 

Mantle, D., et al., “Medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of dementia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy, and tolerability,” CNS Drugs 2000; 13:201-13.

 

Mantle, D., et al., “Therapeutic applications of medicinal plants in the treatment of breast cancer: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability,” Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 2000; 19(3):2223-240.

 

McElhaney, J., et al. “Efficacy of COLD-fX in the prevention of respiratory symptoms in community-dwelling adults: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2006; 12(2):153-57.

 

Mucalo, I., et al., “Effect of American ginseng (panax quinquefolius L.) on arterial stiffness in subjects with diabetes and concomitant hypertension,” Jour Ethnopharmaco. 2013; 150(1):148-53.

 

Ossoukhova, A., et al., “Improved working memory performance following administration of a single dose of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) to healthy middle-age adults,” Hum Psychopharmacol 2015 ;30(2):108-22.

 

Predy, G., et al., “Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial,” CMAJ 2005; 173(9):1043-48.

 

Scholey, A., et al., “Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010; 212(3):345-56.

 

Sen, S., et al., “Preventative effects of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on diabetic nephropathy.” Phytomedicine. 2012;19(6):494-505.

 

Sen, S., et al., “Preventative effects of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on diabetic retinopathy and cardiomyopathy,” Phytother Res 2013; 27(2):290-98.

 

Sung, J., et al., “Effects of red ginseng upon vascular endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2000; 28(2):205-16.

 

Vaes, L., et al., “Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence,” Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34(12):1478-82.

 

Vladimir, V., et al., “American ginseng (Panax quinquifolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(7):1009-13.

 

Vohra, S., et al., “Safety and tolerability of North American ginseng extract in the treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection: a phase II randomized, controlled trial of 2 dosing schedules,” Pediatrics 2008; 122(2):e402-e410.

 

Vuksan, V., et al., “American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiaetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1009-13.

 

Vuksan, V., et al., “Konjac-mannan and American ginseng: emerging alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(5):370S-380S.

 

Vuksan, V., et al., “Similar postprandial glycemic reactions with escalation of dose and administration time of American ginseng in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2000; 23:1221-26.

 

Wang, M., et al., “A proprietary extract from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) enhances IL-2 and IFN-gamma productions in murine spleen cells induced by Con-A,” Int Immunopharmacol 2004; 4(2):311-15.

 

Wargovich, M., “Colon cancer chemoprevention with ginseng and other botanicals,” Jour Korean Med Sci 2001; 16 Suppl:S81-S86.

 

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2003; 26(4):1277-94.

 

Yuan, C., et al., “Brief communication: American ginseng reduces warfarin's effect in healthy patients: a randomized, controlled Trial,” Ann Intern Med 2004; 141(1):23-7.

 

Asian Ginseng

 

Adams, L., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine: applications and implications for cognitive functioning in elderly populations,” Alt Ther 2000; 7(2):52-61.

 

Ang-Lee, M., et al., “Herbal medicines and perioperative care,” JAMA 2001; 286(2):208-16.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Bucci, L., “Selected herbals and human exercise performance,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 72(2 Suppl):624S-636S.

 

Buettner, C., et al., “Systematic review of the effects of ginseng on cardiovascular risk factors,” Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40(1):83-95.

 

Coleman, C., et al., “The effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2003; 28(1):5-15.

 

Ernst, E., “The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava,” Ann Intern Med 2002; 136(1):42-53.

 

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355:134-38.     

 

Gross, D., et al., “Ginseng improves pulmonary functions and exercise capacity in patients with COPD,” Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2002; 57(5-6):242-46.

 

Hartley, D., et al., “Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women,” Nutr Neurosci 2004; 7(5-6):325-33.

 

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

 

Heo, J., et al., “An open-label trial of Korean red ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease,” Eur Jour Neurol 2008; 15(8):865-68.

 

Im G., et al. “Protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract on cisplatin ototoxicity in HE1-OC1 auditory cells,” Phytother Res 2010; 24:614-21.

 

Izzo, A., et al., “Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review,” Drugs 2001; 61(15):2163-75.

 

Kennedy, D., et al., “Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to heathy young adults,” Physiol Behav 2002; 75:739-51.

 

Kim, H., et al., “Comparison of the effects of Korean ginseng and heat-processed Korean ginseng on diabetic oxidative stress,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2008; 36(5):999-1004.

 

Kim, J.H., et al., “Protective effects of ginseng sapnonins on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal degeneration in rats,” Neuropharmacol 2005; 48(5):743-56.

 

Kim, N., et al., “Antidepressant-like effect of altered Korean red ginseng in mice,” Beh Med 2011; 37:42-6.

 

Kim, S., et al., “Effects of Panex ginseng extract on lipid metabolism in humans,” Pharmacol Res 2003; 48(5):511-13.

 

Kwon, Y., et al., “The effects of Korean red ginseng (ginseng radix rubra) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in dogs,” Jour Vet Sci 2003; 4(1):83-92.

 

Lee, J., “Panex ginseng induces human Type-I collagen synthesis through activation of Smad signaling,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2007; 109(1):29-34.

 

Mantle, D., et al., “Medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of dementia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy, and tolerability,” CNS Drugs 2000; 13:201-13.

 

Park, K., et al., “Possible role of ginsenoside RB1 on regulation of rat liver triglycerides,” Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25(4):457-60.

 

Park, S., et al., “Rescue of Helicobacter pylori-induced cytotoxicity by red ginseng,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50(7):1218-27.

 

Price, A., et al., “Korean red ginseng effective for treatment of erectile dysfunction,” Jour Fam Pract 2003; 52(1):20-1.

 

Reay, J., et al., “Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults,” Hum Psychopharmaco 2010; 25(6):462-71.

 

Smith, M., et al., “An open trial of nifedipine-herb interactions: nifedipine with St. John’s wort, ginseng, or Ginkgo biloba,” Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69(2):86.

 

Sung, H., et al., “Korean red ginseng slows depletion of CD4 T cells in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected patients,” Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005; 12(4):497-501.

 

Vaes, L., et al., “Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence,” Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34(12):1478-82.

 

Vayghan, H., et al., “Preventive and therapeutic roles of ginseng - focus on colon cancer,” Asian Pac Jour Cancer Prev 2014; 15(2):585-88.

 

Vuksan, V., et al., “Korean red ginseng (Panex ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety,” Nutra Med Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 18(1):46-56.

 

Goldenseal

 

Abidi, P., et al., “The medicinal plant goldenseal is a natural LDL-lowering agent with multiple bioactive components and new action mechanisms,” Jour Lipid Res 2006; 47(10):2134-47.

 

An, Y., et al., “The use of berberine for women with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing IVF treatment,” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 2014; 80(3):425-31.

 

Ang, E., et al., “Evaluating the role of alternative therapy in burn wound management: randomized trial comparing moist exposed burn ointment with conventional methods in the management of patients with second-degree burns,” Med Gen Med 2001; 3:3.

 

Asai, M., et al., “Berberine alters the processing of Alzheimer’s amyloid precursor protein to decrease a-beta secretion,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007; 352(2):498-502.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Cech, N., et al., “Quorum quenching and antimicrobial activity of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),” Planta Med 2012; 78(14):1556-61.

 

Chen, S., et al. “Mechanism study of goldenseal-associated DNA damage,” Toxicol Lett 2013; 221(1):64-72.

 

Clement-Kruzel, S., et al., “Immune modulation of macrophage pro-inflammatory response by goldenseal and Astragalus extracts,” Jour Med Food 2008; 11(3):493-98.

 

Gupte, S., “Use of berberine in the treatment of giardiasis,” Amer Jour Dis Child 1975; 129(7):866.

 

Hwang, B., et al., “Antimicrobial constituents from goldenseal (the Rhizomes of Hydrastis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens,” Planta Med 2003; 69(7):623-27.

 

Inbaraj, J., et al., “Photochemistry and photocytotoxicity of alkaloids from Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.). 2. Palmatine, hydrastine, canadine, and hydrastinine,” Chem Res Toxicol 2006; 19(6):739-44.

 

Janbaz, K., et al., “Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents,” Fitoterapia 2000; 71:25-33.

 

Jiang, X., et al.,”Effects of berberine gelatin on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in a Chinese cohort,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path Oral Radiol 2013; 115(2):212-17.

 

Kim, S., et al., “Berberine inhibits TPA-induced MMP-9 and IL-6 expression in normal human keratinocytes,” Phytomedicine 2008; 15(5):340-47.

 

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

 

Kulkarni, S., et al., “On the mechanism of antidepressant-like action of berberine chloride,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2008; 589(1-3):163-72.

 

Lau, C., et al., “Cardiovascular actions of berberine,” Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2001; 19(3):234-44.

 

Lee, C., et al., “Berberine suppresses inflammatory agents-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production via the inhibition of I(kappa)B degradation in human lung cells,” Pharmacol Res 2007; 56(3):193-201.

 

Li, G., et al., “Berberine inhibits acute radiation intestinal syndrome in human with abdomen radiotherapy,” Med Oncol 2010; 27(3):9919-25.

 

Li, H., et al., “Effect of berberine on bone mineral density in SAMP6 as a senile osteoporosis model,” Biol Pharm Bull. 2003; 26(1):110-11.

 

Liu, Y., et al., “Protective effects of berberine on radiation-induced lung injury via intracellular adhesion molecular-1 and transforming growth factor-beta-1 in patients with lung cancer,” Eur Jour Cancer 2008; 44(16):2425-32.

 

Mahady, G., et al., “In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to isoquinoline alkaloids from Sanguinaria canadensis and Hydrastis Canadensis,” Phytother Res 2003; 17(3):217-21.

 

Palanisamy, A., “Photosensitivity reaction in a woman using an herbal supplement containing ginseng, goldenseal, and bee pollen,” Jour Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2003; 41(6):865-67.

 

Periera da Silva A., et al., “Antioxidants in medicinal plant extracts. A research study of the antioxidant capacity of Crataegus, Hamamelis and Hydrastis,” Phytother Res 2000; 14(8):612-16.

 

Sandhu, R., et al., “Influence of goldenseal root on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir,” Jour Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43(11):1283-88.

 

Scazzocchio, F., et al., “Antibacterial activity of Hydrastis canadensis extract and its major isolated alkaloids,” Planta Med 2001; 67(6):561-64.

 

Teodoro, J., et al., “Berberine reverts hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat fed rats: a possible role for SirT3 activation,” Mitochondrion 2013; 13(6):636-46.

 

Wang, Y., et al., “Berberine and plant sterols synergistically inhibit cholesterol absorption enhancers,” Atherosclerosis 2010; 209(1):11-17.

 

Weber, H., et al., “Chemical comparison of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) root powder from three commercial suppliers,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(25):7352-58.

 

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc, 2000.

 

Wu, X., et al., “Effects of berberine on the blood concentration of cyclosporine A in renal transplanted recipients: clinical and pharmacokinetic study,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61(8):567-72.

 

Yin, J., et al., “Effects of berberine of glucose metabolism in vitro,” Metabolism 2002; 51(11):1439-43.

 

Zeng, X., et al., “Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2003; 92(2):173-76.

 

Zhang, H., et al., “Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression,” Metabolism 2010; 59(2):285-92.

 

Glycyrrhizin

 

Acharya, S., et al., “A preliminary open trial on interferon stimulator (SNMC) derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra in the treatment of subacute hepatic failure,” Indian Jour Med Res 1993; 98:69-74.

 

Amato, P., et al., “Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms,” Menopause 2002; 9:145-50.

 

Arase, Y., et al., “The long-term efficacy of glycyrrhizin in chronic hepatitis C patients,” Cancer 1997; 79(8):1494-1500.

 

Arjumand, W., et al., “Glycyrrhizic acid: A phytochemical with a protective role against cisplatin-induced genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity,” Life Sciences 2011; 89(13-14):422-29.

 

Armanini, D., et al., “Effect of licorice on reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 2003; 26:646-50.

 

Armanini, D., et al., “Further studies on the mechanism of the mineralocorticoid action of licorice in humans,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 1996; 19:624-29.

 

Armanini, D., et al., “Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application,” Steroids 2005; 70(8):538-42.

 

Armanini, D., et al., “Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man,” Exp Clin Endocrinol Diab 2003;111:341-43.

 

Armanini, D., et al., “Licorice reduces serum testosterone in healthy women,” Steroids 2004; 69(11-12):763-66.

 

Armanini, D., et al., “Reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice,” NEJM 1999;341:1158.

 

Asi, M., et al., “Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds,” Phytotherapy Res 2008; 22(6):709–24.

 

Bannister, B., et al., “Cardiac arrest due to liquorice-induced hypokalaemia,” Brit Med Jour 1977; 2(6089):738-39.

 

Baschetti, R., “Chronic fatigue syndrome and licorice,” (letter) New Zealand Med Jour 1995; 108:156-57.

 

Bell, Z., et al., “A dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers or health and adiposity,” Lipids Health Dis 2011; 10:29.

 

Beretta-Piccoli, C., et al., “Body-sodium and blood volume in a patient with licorice-induced hypertension,” Jour Hypertens 1985; 3(1):19-23.

 

Birari, R., et al., “Anti-obesity and lipid lowering effects of Glycyrrhiza chalcones: Experimental and computational studies,” Phytomed 2011; 18(8-9):795-801.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Celik, M., et al., “Licorice induced hypokalemia, edema, and thrombocytopenia,” Hum Exp Toxicol 2012; 31(12):1295-98.

 

Chin, Y., et al., “Anti-oxidant constituents of the roots and stolons of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra),” Jour Agric Food Chem 2007; 55(12):4691-97.

 

Choi, E., “The licorice root derived isoflavin glabridin increases the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells,” Biochem Pharmacol 2005; 70(3):363-68.

 

Cinatl, J., et al., “Glycyrrhizin, an active component of licorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus,” Lancet 2003; 361(9374):2045-46.

 

Crance, J., et al., “Interferon, ribavirin, 6-azauridine, and glycyrrhizin: antiviral compounds active against pathogenic flaviviruses,” Antiviral Res 2003; 58:73-9.

 

Da Nagao, Y., et al., “Effectiveness of glycyrrhizin for oral lichen planus in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Jour Gastroenterol 1996; 31(5):691-95.

 

Davis, E., et al., “Medicinal uses of licorice through the millennia: the good and plenty of it,” Mol Cell Endocrinol 1991; 78(1-2):1-6.

 

Dhingra, D., et al., “Antidepressant-like activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. in mouse models of immobility tests,” Prog Neurophyschopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006; 30(3):449-54.

 

Dhingra, D., et al., “Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2004; 91(2-3):361-65.

 

Farese, R., et al., “Licorice-induced hypermineralocorticoidism,” NEJM 1991; 325:1223-27.

 

Farese, S., et al., “Glycyrrhetinic acid food supplementation lowers serum potassium concentrations in chronic hemodialysis patients,” Kidney Int 2009; 76(8):877-84.

 

Fiore, C., et al., “Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species,” Phytother Res 2008; 22(2):141-48.

 

Firenzuoli, F., et al., “Rhabdomyolysis due to licorice ingestion,” (in Italian) Recenti Prog Med 2002; 93:9.

 

Francini-Pesenti, F., et al., “Liquorice-induced hypokalaemia and water retention in the absence of hypertension,” Phytother Res 2008; 22:563-65.

 

Fu, Y., et al., “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the flavonoids separated from licorice,” Food Chem 2013; 141(2):1963-71.

 

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355(9198):134-38.

 

Fuhrman, B., et al., “Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: increased resistance of LDL to atherogenic modifications, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased systolic blood pressure,” Nutrition 2002; 18(3):268-73.

 

Goultschin, J., et al., “Effect of glycyrrhizin-containing toothpaste on dental plaque reduction and gingival health in humans. A pilot study,” Jour Clin Periodontol 1991; 18(3):210-12.

 

Gupta, D., et al., “Effect of preoperative licorice lozenges on incidence of postextubation cough and sore throat in smokers undergoing general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation,” Middle East Jour Anaesthesiol 2013; 22(2):173-78.

 

Hajiaghamohammadi, A.s, et al., “The efficacy of licorice root extract in decreasing transaminase activities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial,” Phytother Res 2012; 26(9):1381-84.

 

Harada, T., et al., “Congestive heart failure caused by digitalis toxicity in an elderly man taking a licorice-containing Chinese herbal laxative,” Cardiology 2002; 98(4):218.

 

Hasani-Ranjbar, S., et al., “The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review,” Curr Pharm Des 2010; 16(26):2935-47.

 

Hatano, T., et al., “Phenolic constituents of licorice. VII: structure of glicophenone and glicosioflavone and effects of licorice phenolics on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2000; 48(9):1286-92.

 

Hattori, T., et al., “Preliminary evidence for inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on HIV replication in patients with AIDS,” Antiviral Res 1989; 11(5-6):255-61.

 

Hoever, G., et al., “Antiviral activity of Glycyrrhizic acid derivatives against SARS-coronavirus,” Jour Med Chem 2005; 48(4):1256-59.

 

Ito, M., et al., “Mechanism of inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),” Antiviral Res 1988; 10(6):289-98.

 

Jiang, L., et al., “Discovery of glycyrrhetinic acid as an orally active, direct inhibitor of blood coagulation factor x,” Thromb Res 2014; 133(3):501-06.

 

Kang, O., et al., “Inhibition of interleukin-8 production in the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29 by 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid,” Inter Jour Molecular Med 2005; 15(6):981-85.

 

Kroes, B., et al., “Inhibition of human complement by beta-glycyrrhetinic acid,” Immunology 1997; 90(1):115-20.

 

Lee, C., et al., “Protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice,” Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30(10):1898-1904.

 

Lee, I., et al., “Combined extractives of red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in subjects with metabolic syndrome,” Nutr Res 2012; 32(2):85-92.

 

Lin, J., “Mechanism of action of glycyrrhizic acid in inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus replication in vitro,” Antiviral Res 2003; 59(1):41-7.

 

Lin, S., et al., “Glycyrrhizin and licorice significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate in rats,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2009; 57(5):1854-59.

 

Luo, P., et al., “Pharmacological perspective Glycyrrhizin may be an efficacious therapeutic agent for COVID-19,” Int Jour Antimicrob Agents 2020; Apr 24; 105995.

 

Luper, S., “A review of plants used in the treatment of liver disease: part two,” Altern Med Rev 1999; 4(3):178-88.

 

Messier, C., et al., “Effect of licorice compounds licohalcone A, glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid on growth and virulence properties of Candida albicans,” Mycoses 2011; 54(6):e801-e806.

 

Messier, C., et al., “Licorice and its potential beneficial effects in common oro-dental diseases,” Oral Dis 2012; 18(1):32-9.

 

Michaelis, M., et al., “Glycyrrhizin exerts antioxidative effects in H5N1 influenza A virus-infected cells and inhibits virus replication and pro-inflammatory gene expression,” PLoS One 2011; 6(5):e19705.

 

Michaelis, M., et al., “Glycyrrhizin inhibits highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in human macrophages,” Med Microbiol Immunol 2010; 199(4):292-97.

 

Mitscher, L., et al., “Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Antimicrobial isoflavanoids and related substances from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. typical,” Jour Nat Prod 1980; 43(2):259-69.

 

Mumoli, N., et al., “Licorice-induced hypokalemia,” Int Jour Cardiol 2008; 124(3):e42-e44.

 

Nabeshima, S., et al., “A randomized, controlled trial comparing traditional herbal medicine and neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment of seasonal influenza,” Jour Infect Chemother 2012; 18(4):534-43.

 

Nokhodchi, A., et al., “The effect of glycyrrhizin on the release rate and skin penetration of diclofenac sodium from topical formulations,” Farmaco 2002; 57(11):883-88.

 

Pompei, R., et al., “Antiviral properties of Glycyrrhizic acid and its semisynthetic derivates,” Mini Rev Med Chem 2009; 9(8):996-1001.

 

Rafi, M., et al., “Novel polyphenol molecule of Beel-2 and cytotoxicity by licochalcone-A, a novel estrogenic flavonoid,” Anticancr Res 2000; 20(4):101-13.

 

Ram, A., et al., “Glycyrrhizin alleviates experimental allergic asthma in mice,” Int Immunopharmacol 2006; 6(9):1468-77.

 

Rosenblat, M., et al., “Paraoxonases role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases,” Biofactors 2009; 35(1):98-104.

 

Setchell, K., et al., “Dietary isoflavones: botanical effects and relevance to human health,” Jour Nutr 1999; 129:758S-767S.

 

Shi, Y., et al., “Analgesic and uterine relaxing effects of isoliquirtigenin, a flavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra,” Pytother Res 2012; 26(9):1410-17.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Sun, Z., et al., “Research progress of Glycyrrhizic acid on antiviral activity,” Mini Rev Med Chem 2019; 19(10):826-32.

 

Tacconi, P., et al., “Carpal tunnel syndrome triggered by excessive licorice consumption,” Jour Peripher Nerv Syst 2009; 14(1):64-5.

 

Thom, E., et al., “A controlled clinical study of kanjang mixture in the treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections,” Phytotherapy Res 1997; 11:207-10.

 

Tsai, H., et al., “A review of potential harmful interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents and Chinese herbal medicines,” PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e64255.

 

van Rossum, T., et al., “Pharmacokinetics of intravenous glycyrrhizin after single and multiple doses in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection,” Clin Ther 1999; 21(12):2080-90.

 

Visavadiya, N., et al., “Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn) in rat,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2006; 50(11):1080-86.

 

Wang, J., et al., “Glycyrrhizic acid as the antiviral component of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fish Against Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71 of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2013; 147(1):114-21.

 

Werner, S., et al., “Hyperprolactinaemia and liquorice,” Lancet 1979; 1(8111):319.

 

Wu, F., et al., “Hypoglycemic effect of glabridin, a polyphenolic flavonoid from licorice, in an animal model of diabetes mellitus,” Mol Med Rep 2013; 7(4):1278-82.

 

Yamashiki, M., et al., “Effects of the Japanese herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9) on in vitro interleukin-10 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology 1997; 25(6):1390-97.

 

Zheng, A., et al., “Effect of the combination of ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza on autonomic nervous activity and immune system under mental arithmetic stress,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2008; 54(3):244-49.

 

Olive Leaf Extract

 

Al Dhaheri, Y., et al., “Anti-metastatic and anti-tumor growth effects of Origanum majorana on highly metastatic human breast cancer cells: inhibition of NFκB signaling and reduction of nitric oxide production,” PLoS One 2013; 8:7.

 

Babili, F., et al., “Oregano: chemical analysis and evaluation of its antimalarial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities,” Jour Food Sci 2011; 76(3):C512-C518.

 

Barbour, E., et al., “Antimicrobial profile of essential oils extracted from wild versus cultivated Origanum ehrenberjii against enteric bacteria,” Jour Infect Dev  2014; 15;8(10):1344-49.  

 

Eng, W., et al., “Development of an oregano-based ointment with anti-microbial activity including activity against methicillin-resistant Staphlococcusaureus,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2010; 9(4):377-80. 

 

Kavanaugh, N., et al., “Selected antimicrobial essential oils eradicate Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms,” Appl Environ Microbiol 2012; 78(11):4057-61.

 

Mueller, M., et al., “Oregano: a source for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2008; 56(24):621-30.

 

Suntres, Z., et al., “The bioactivity and toxicological actions of carvacrol,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2015; 55(3):304-18.  

 

NUTRITIONAL THERAPIES

 

Peng, L., et al., “Amino acids and immune function,” Brit Jour Nutr 2007; 98(2):237-32.

 

L-arginine

 

Andoh, T., et al., “Protective effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation on chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity,” Transplantation 1997; 64(9):1236-40.

 

Ast, J., et al., “Evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of L-arginine supplementation in patients with mild hypertension assessed with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring,” Med Sci Monit 2010; 16(5):CR266-CR271.

 

Baris, N., et al., “Alterations in L-arginine and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria,” Acta Diabetol 2009; 46(4):309-16.

 

Bednarz, B., et al., “Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced QT dispersion and exercise tolerance in stable angina pectoris,” Int Jour Cardiol 2000; 75(2-3):205-10.

 

Blum, A., “Effects of oral L-arginine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and markers of inflammation in healthy postmenopausal women,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2000; 35:271-76.

 

Bode-Boger, S., et al., “L-arginine infusion decreases peripheral arterial resistance and inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy subject,” Clin Sci (Lond) 1994; 87(3):303-10.

 

Bode-Boger, S., et al., “Oral L-arginine improves endothelial function in healthy individuals older than 70 years,” Vasc Med 2003; 8(2):77-81.

 

Borsheim, E., et al., “Effect of amino acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength and physical function in elderly,” Clin Nutr 2008; 27(2):189-95.

 

Camic, C., e al., “Effects of arginine-based supplements on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold,” Jour Strength Cond Res 2010; 24(5):1306-12.

 

Cartledge, J., et al., “A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of the efficacy of L-arginine in the treatment of interstitial cystitis,” Brit Jour Urol Int 2000; 85(4):421-26.

 

Cassone, Faldetta M., et la., “L-arginine infusion decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations through increased nitric oxide production and decreased oxidative status in Type II diabetic patients,” Diabetologia 2002; 45(8):1120-27.

 

Chen, S., et al., “Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010; 7:13.

 

Cheng, J., et al., “L-arginine in the management of cardiovascular diseases,” Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35:755-64.

 

Colagrande, L., et al., “Reduced cytokines release and myocardial damage in coronary artery bypass patients due to L-arginine cardioplegia supplementation,” Ann Thorac Surg 2006; 81(4):1256-61.

 

De Aloysio D., “The clinical use of arginine aspartate in male infertility,” Acta Eur Fertil 1982; 13(3):133-67.

 

Desneves, K. et al., “Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomised controlled trial,” Clin Nutr 2005; 24(6):979-87.

 

Doley, J., “Nutrition management of pressure ulcers,” Nutr Clin Pract 2010; 25(1):50-60.

 

Dong, J. et al., “Effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials,” Amer Heart Jour 2011; 162(6):959-65.

 

Doutreleau, S., et al., “L-arginine supplementation improves exercise capacity after a heart transplant,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 91(5):1261-67.

 

Efron, D., et al., “Role of arginine in immunonutrition.” Jour Gastroenterol 2000; 35(Suppl 12):20–23.

 

Egashira, K., et al., “Effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms,” Circulation 1996; 94(2):130-34.

 

Eshghi, F., “The efficacy of L-arginine gel for treatment of chronic anal fissure compared to surgical sphincterotomy,” Jour Med Sci 2007; 7(3):481-84.

 

Fahs, C., et al., “Hemodynamic and vascular response to resistance exercise with L-arginine,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41(4):773-79.

 

Fricke, O., et al., “The effect of L-arginine administration on muscle force and power in postmenopausal women,” Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2008; 28(5):307-11.

 

Gentile, V., et al., “Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and nicotinic acid on the efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetes,” Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25(9):2223-28.

 

Griffin, N., et al., “Topical L-arginine gel lowers resting anal pressure: possible treatment for anal fissure,” Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45(10):1332-36.

 

Hertz, P., et al., “Arginine-induced hyperkalemia in renal failure patients,” Arch Intern Med 1972; 130(5):778-80.

 

Heyman, H., et al., “Benefits of an oral nutritional supplement on pressure ulcer healing in long-term care residents,” Jour Wound Care 2008; 17(11):476-78, 480.

 

Houwing, R., et al., “A randomised, double-blind assessment of the effect of nutritional supplementation on the prevention of pressure ulcers in hip-fracture patients,” Clin Nutr 2003; 22(4):401-05.

 

Huynh, N., et al., “Oral arginine reduces systemic blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: its potential role in nitric oxide generation,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2002; 21:422-27.

 

Jude, E., et al., “Effect of L-arginine on the microcirculation in the neuropathic diabetic foot in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Diabet Med 2010; 27(1):113-16.

 

Kawano, H., et al., “Endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia is improved by L-arginine administration: possible role of oxidative stress,” Atherosclerosis 2002; 161(2):375-80.

 

Khan, F., et al., “Oral L-arginine supplementation and cutaneous vascular responses in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon,” Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40(2):352-57.

 

Khan, F., et al., “Skin blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon: effects of oral L-arginine supplementation,” Jour Rheumatol 1999; 26(11):2389-94.

 

Kirk, S., et al., “Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings,” Surgery 1993; 114(2):155-59.

 

Knechtle, B., et al., “The influence of arginine supplementation on performance and metabolism in athletes,” Inter Sport Med Jour 2008; 9(1):22-31.

 

Koga, Y., et al., “Endothelial dysfunction in MELAS improved by l-arginine supplementation,” Neurology 2006; 66(11):1766-69.

 

Koga, Y., et al., “L-arginine improves the symptoms of stroke-like episodes in MELAS,” Neurology 2005; 64(4):710-12.

 

Komers, R., et al., “Effect of ACE inhibition and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade on renal and blood pressure response to L-arginine in humans,” Jour Hypertens 2000; 18(1):51-9.

 

Lakhan, S., et al., “Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review,” Nutr Jour 2010; 9:42.

 

Lecleire, S., et al., “Modulation of nitric oxide and cytokines production by L-arginine in human gut mucosa,” Clin Nutr 2005; 24(3):353-59.

 

Ledda, A., et al., “Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study,” Brit Jour Urology Int 2010; 106(7):1030-33.

 

Lekakis, J., et al., “Oral L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension,” Int Jour Cardiol 2002; 86(2-3):317-23.

 

Lim, D. S., et al., “Effect of oral L-arginine on oxidant stress, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic arterial pressure in young cardiac transplant recipient,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2004; 94(6):828-31.

 

Lubec, B., et al., “L-Arginine reduces lipid peroxidation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Free Radic Biol Med 1997; 22(1-2):355-57.

 

Lucotti, P., et al., “Beneficial effects of a long-term oral L-arginine treatment added to a hypocaloric diet and exercise training program in obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients,” Amer Jour Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006; 291(5):E906-E912.

 

Lucotti, P., et al., “Oral L-arginine supplementation improves endothelial function and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and inflammation in cardiopathic nondiabetic patients after an aortocoronary bypass,” Metabolism 2009; 58(9):1270-76.

 

Maarsingh, H., et al., “Arginine homeostasis in allergic asthma,” Eur.Joour Pharmacol 2008; 585(2-3):375-84.

 

Malenfant, D., et al., “The efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a literature review and meta-analysis,” Rheumatology (Oxf.) 2009; 48(7):791-95.

 

Marchesi, S., et al., “Oral L-arginine administration attenuates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in young healthy males,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2001; 26(5):343-49.

 

Martina, V., et al., “A long-term N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine administration reduces endothelial activation and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2008; 31(5):940-44.

 

Masha, A., et al., “Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 2009; 32(11):870-72.

 

Maxwell, A., et al., “L-arginine enhances aerobic exercise capacity in association with augmented nitric oxide production,” Jour Appl Physiol 2001; 90(3):933-38.

 

Maxwell, A., et al., “Randomized trial of a medical food for the dietary management of chronic, stable angina,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2002; 39:37-45.

 

McConell, G., “Effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise metabolism,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2007; 10(1):46-51.

 

McConell, G., et al., “L-Arginine infusion increases glucose clearance during prolonged exercise in humans,” Amer Jour Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006; 290(1):E60-E66.

 

Miroueh, A., “Effect of arginine on oligospermia,” Fertil Steril 1970; 21(3):217-19.

 

Morris, C., et al., “Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease,” Brit Jour Haematol 2000; 111(2):498-500.

 

Nelson, R., “Non-surgical therapy for anal fissure,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;2:CD003431

 

Ohtsuka, Y., et al., “Effect of oral administration of L-arginine on senile dementia,” Amer Jour Med 2000; 108:439.

 

 

Oka, R., et al., “A pilot study of L-arginine supplementation on functional capacity in peripheral arterial disease,” Vasc Med 2005; 10(4):265-74.

 

Palloshi, A., et al., “Effect of oral L-arginine on blood pressure and symptoms and endothelial function in patients with systemic hypertension, positive exercise tests, and normal coronary arteries,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2004; 93(7):933-35.

 

Pernow, J., et al., “L-arginine protects from ischemia-reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans in vivo,” Jour Appl Physiol 2003; 95(6):2218-22.

 

Pezza, V., et al., “Study of supplemental oral l-arginine in hypertensives treated with enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide,” Amer Jour Hyperten 1998; 11(10):1267-70.

 

Piatti, P., et al., “Long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes Care 2001; 24(5):875-80.

 

Pryor, J., et al., “Controlled clinical trial of arginine for infertile men with oligozoospermia,” Brit Jour Urol 1978; 50(1):47-50.

 

Rajapakse, N., et al., “Role of L-arginine in nitric oxide production in health and hypertension,” Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 36(3):249-55.

 

Rector, T., et al., “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental oral L-arginine in patients with heart failure,” Circulation 1996; 93:2135-41.

 

Regensteiner, J., et al., “Oral L-arginine and vitamins E and C improve endothelial function in women with type 2 diabetes,” Vasc Med 2003; 8(3):169-75.

 

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

 

Saito, H., et al., “Metabolic and immune effects of dietary arginine supplementation after burn,” Arch Surg 1987; 122(7):784-89.

 

Saleh, A., et al., “Protective effect of L-arginine in experimentally induced myocardial ischemia: comparison with aspirin,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2011; 16(1):53-62.

 

Sandrini, G., et al., “Effectiveness of ibuprofen-arginine in the treatment of acute migraine attacks,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Res 1998; 18:145-50.

 

Schachter, A., et al., “Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid L-arginine,” Jour Urology 1973; 110(3):310-13.

 

Schachter, A., et al., “Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid arginine,” Int Jour Gynaecol Obstet 1973; 11(5):206-09.

 

Schachter, A., et al., “Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid arginine,” Jour Urology 1973; 110(3):311-13.

 

Schaefer, A., et al., “L-arginine reduces exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia,” Int Jour Sports Med 2002; 23(6):403-07.

 

Schulman, S., et al., “L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction. The vascular interaction with age in myocardial infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2006; 295:58-64.

 

Schulze, F., et al., “L-Arginine enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of simvastatin in patients with elevated plasma triglycerides,” Nutr Res 2009; 29(5):291-97.

 

Settergren, M., et al., “L-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease,” Atherosclerosis 2009; 204(1):73-8.

 

Siani, A., et al., “Blood pressure and metabolic changes during dietary L-arginine supplementation in human.” Amer Jour Hypertens 2000; 13(5, Pt.1):547–51.

 

Siasos, G., et al., “The impact of oral L-arginine supplementation on acute smoking-induced endothelial injury and arterial performance,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2009; 22(6):586-92.

 

Sinatra, S., Heart Sense For Women. Washington, DC:  LifeLine Press, 2000.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Smith, S., et al., “Improvement in interstitial cystitis symptom scores during treatment with oral L-arginine,” Jour Urology 1997; 158(3 Pt 1):703-08.

 

Smriga, M., et al. “Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans,” Biomed Res 2007; 28(2):85-90.

 

Sun, T., et al., “Oral L-arginine supplementation in acute myocardial infarction therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Clin Cardiol 2009; 32(11):649-52.

 

Sydow, K., et al., “ADMA and oxidative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia: effects of L-arginine and B vitamins,” Cardiovasc Res 2003; 57(1):244-52.

 

Tangphao, O., et al., “Pharmacokinetics of L-arginine during chronic administration to patients with hypercholesterolaemia,” Clin Sci (Lond) 1999; 96(2):199-207.

 

Tarumoto, T., et al., “L-arginine administration reverses anemia associated with renal disease,” Int Jour Hematol 2007; 86(2):126-29.

 

Theilmeier, G., et al., “Adhesiveness of mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic humans is normalized by dietary L-arginine,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17(12):3557-64.

 

Tripathi, P., et al., “Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase,” Oxid Med Cell Longev 2009; 2(4):231-37.

 

Tripathi, P., et al., “Therapeutic role of L-arginine on free radical scavenging system in ischemic heart diseases,” Indian Jour Biochem Biophys 2009; 46(6):498-502.

 

Umathe, S., et al., “Gastrointestinal dysfunction in diabetic rats relates with a decline in tissue L-arginine content and consequent low levels of nitric oxide,” Nitric Oxide 2009; 20(2):129-33.

 

Watanabe, G., et al., “Effects of oral administration of L-arginine on renal function in patients with heart failure,” Jour Hypertens 2000; 18:229-34.

 

Wheeler, M., et al., “Effect of long-term oral L-arginine on the nitric oxide synthase pathway in the urine from patients with interstitial cystitis,” Jour Urology 1997; 158:2045-50.

 

Wolf, A., et al., “Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 1997; 29(3):479-85.

 

Wu, G., et al. “Nitric oxide and vascular insulin resistance,” Biofactors 2009; 35(1):21-7.

Wu, G., et al., “Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease,” Amino Acids 2009; 37(1):153-68.

 

Yeo, T., et al., “Pharmacokinetics of L-arginine in adults with moderately severe malaria,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52(12):4381-87.

 

Yin, W., et al., “L-arginine improves endothelial function and reduces LDL oxidation in patients with stable coronary artery disease,” Clin Nutr 2005; 24(6):988-97.

 

Zajac, A., et al., “Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes,” Jour Strength Cond Res 2010; 24(4):1082-90.

 

Zhang, X., et al., “The anabolic effect of arginine on proteins in skin wound and muscle is independent of nitric oxide production,” Clin Nutr 2008; 27(4):649-56.

 

L-carnitine

 

Arockia, R., et al., “Carnitine as a free radical scavenger in aging,” Exp Gerontal 2001; 36:1713-26.

 

Benveng, S., et al., “Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Met 2001; 86(8):3579–94.

 

Benvenga, S., et al., “Effects of carnitine on thyroid hormone action,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004; 1033: 58–67.

 

Benvenga, S., et al., “Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86(8):3579-94.

 

Biagiotti, G., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine vs tamoxifen in the oral therapy of Peyronie's disease: a preliminary report,” Brit Jour Urol Int 2001; 88(1):63-7.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Bland, J., Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig harbor, WA Institute for Functional Medicine 2002.

 

Brooks, J., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach,” Int Psychogeriatr 1998; 10:192-203.

 

Brown, J., et al., "The gut microbial endocrine organ: bacterially derived signals driving cardiometabolic diseases". Ann Rev Med 2015; 66:343–59.

 

Cavallini, G., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine plus propionyl-L-carnitine improve efficacy of sildenafil in treatment of erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Urology. 2005; 66:1080-85.

 

Crayhon, R., “The Carnitine Miracle. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 1998.

 

Cruciani, R., et al., “Safety, tolerability and symptom outcomes associated with L-carnitine supplementation in patients with cancer, fatigue, and carnitine deficiency: a phase I/II study,” Jour Pain Symptom Manag 2006; 32(6):551-59.

 

Dambrova, M., "Risks and benefits of carnitine supplementation in diabetes," Exp. Clin Endocrinol Diab 2015; 123:100.

 

De Angelis, C., et al., “Levocarnitine acetyl stimulates peripheral nerve regeneration and neuromuscular junction remodeling following sciatic nerve injury,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Res 1992; 12:269-79.

 

De Simone, C., et al., “Vitamins and Immunity: II. Influence of L-carnitine on the immune system,” Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 1982; 4(1-2):135-40.

 

Dinicolantonio, J., et al., "L-Carnitine in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis," Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2013; 88(6):544–51.

 

Duran, M., et al., “Secondary carnitine deficiency,” Jour Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1990; 28(5):359-63.

 

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herbs and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease,” Prev Cardiology 2000; 3:24-32.

 

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

 

Garzya, G., et al., “Evaluation of the effects of L-acetyl-carnitine on senile patients suffering from depression,” Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990; 16:101-06.

 

Head, K., “Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies,” Altern Med Rev 2006; 11(4):294-329.

 

Hooshmand, S., et al., "Dietary L-Carnitine supplementation improves bone mineral density by suppressing bone turnover in aged ovariectomized rats,” Phytomedicine 2008; 15(8):595–601.

 

Johri, A., et al., "Carnitine therapy for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: evidence and controversies," Nutr Metab Cardiova Dis 2014; 24:808–14.

 

Malaguarnera, M., et al., “L-carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centurians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2007; 86(6):1738-44.

 

Marcovina, S., et al., "Translating the basic knowledge of mitochondrial functions to metabolic therapy: role of L-Carnitine,” Translational Res 2013; 161(2):73–84.

 

Miyagawa, T., et al., "Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial". PLoS One 2013; 8(1):e53707.

 

Pettegrew, J., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression,” Mol Psychiatry 2000; 5:616-32.

 

Retter, A., et al., “Carnitine and its role in cardiovascular disease,” Heart Disease 1999; 1:108-13.

 

Shaley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

 

Sinclair, S., “Male infertility: nutritional and environmental considerations,” Alt Med Rev 2000; 5(1):28-38.

 

Spoganoli, A., et al., “Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer’ disease,” Neurology 1991; 41:1726-32.

 

Steiber, A., et al., "Carnitine: a nutritional, biosynthetic, and functional perspective,” Mol. Aspects Med 2004; 25(5–6):455–73.

 

Tanphaichitr, V., et al., “Carnitine metabolism and carnitine deficiency,” Nur 1993; 9:246-54.

Werbach, M., “Nutritional strategies for treating chronic fatigue syndrome,” Altern Med Rev 2000; 5(2):93-108.

 

Witte, K., et al., “Chronic heart failure and micronutrients,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2001; 37(7):1765-74.

 

Witte, K., et al., “Micronutrients and their supplementation in chronic cardiac failure. An update beyond theoretical perspectives,” Heart Fail Rev 2006; 11(1):65-74.

 

Chromium

 

Abdollahi, M., et al., “Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials,” Jour Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(1):99-114.

 

Anderson, A., et al., “Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(3):212-18.

 

Anderson, R “Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes,” Diabetes and Metabolism 2000; 26(1)22-7.

 

Anderson, R., et al., “Effect of chromium supplementation on Cr excretion of human subjects and correlation of Cr excretion with selected clinical parameters,” Jour Nutri 1983; 113:276–81.

 

Bahadori, B., et al., “Treatment with chromium picolinate improves lean body mass in patients following weight reduction,” Inter Jour Obesity 1995; 19(Suppl)12:38.

 

Balk, E., et al., “Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Diabetes Care 2007; 30(8):2154-63.

 

Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers,” Applying Function

al Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Functional Medicine Institute, 2002.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Crayhon, R., Robert Crayhon’s Nutrition Made Simple. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 1994.

 

Davìs, G., et al., “Nutraceuticals in diabetes and metabolic syndrome,” Cardiovasc Ther 2010; 28(4):216-26.

 

Evans, G., Chromium Picolinate. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1996.

 

Hellerstein, M., “Is chromium supplementation effective in managing type II diabetes?” Nutr Rev 1998; 56(10):302-06.

 

Lee, N., et al., “Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM,” Diabetes Care 1994; 17:1449-52.

 

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

 

 

Mertz, W., “Chromium in human nutrition: a review,” Jour Nutr 1993; 123(4):626-33.

 

Nielsen, F., “Manganese, Molybdenum, Boron, Chromium, and other trace elements.” In Present Knowledge of Nutrition, edited by Erdman, J., Macdonald, I., Zelssel, S. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.

 

Press, R., et al., “The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apoliporotein fractions in human subjects,” Western Jour Med 1990; 152:41–5.

 

Preuss, H., et al., “Chromium update: examining recent literature 1997–1998,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998; 1:509–12.

 

Trow, l., et al., “Lack of effect of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Int Jour Vitam Nutr Res 2000; 70(1):14-8.

 

Wang, Z., et al., “Current concepts about chromium supplementation in type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance,” Curr Diab Rep. 2010; 10(2):145-51.

 

Glutamine

 

Achamrah, N., et al., “Glutamine and the regulation of intestinal permeability from bench to bedside,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metabol Care 2017; 20(1):86-91.

 

Anderson, P., et al., “Effect of low-dose oral glutamine on painful stomatitis during bone marrow transplantation,” Bone Marrow Transplant 1998; 22:339-44.

 

Anderson, P., et al., “Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy,” Cancer 1998; 83:1433-39.

 

Antonio, J., et al., “Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes,” Can Jour Appl Physiol 1999; 24:1-14.

 

Blijlevens, N., et al., “A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, pilot study of parenteral glutamine for allogeneic stem cell transplant patients,” Support Care Cancer 2005; 13(10):790-96.

 

Buchman, A., “Glutamine for short-bowel syndrome,” Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2002; 4(4):321.

 

Byrne, T., et al., “Growth hormone, glutamine, and a modified diet enhance nutrient absorption in patients with severe short bowel syndrome,” JPEN Jour Parenter Enteral Nutr 1995; 19:296-302.

 

Byrne, T., et al., “Growth hormone, glutamine, and an optimal diet reduces parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial,” Ann Surg 2005; 242(5):655-61.

 

Candow, D., et al., “Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults,” Eur Jour Appl Physiol 2001; 86(2):142-49.

 

Castell, L., et al., “Some aspects of the acute phase response after a marathon race, and the effects of glutamine supplementation,” Eur Jour Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997; 75(1):47-53.

 

Chang, W., “Effect of glutamine on Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Clin Inmmunol 199 93(3):294-301.

 

Fan, Y., “Effects of glutamine supplementation on patients undergoing abdominal surgery,” Chin Med Sci Jour 2009; 24(1):55–9.

 

Flaring, U., et al., “Glutamine attenuates post-traumatic glutathione depletion in human muscle,” Clin Sci (Lond) 2003; 104(3):275-82.

 

Griffiths, R, “Outcome of critically ill patients after supplementation with glutamine,” Nutrition 1997; 13(7-8):752-54.

 

Heuschen, U., et al., “Glutamine distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli before and after restorative proctocolectomy,” Int Jour Colorectal Dis 2002; 17(4):245-52.

 

Hiscock, N., et al., “Glutamine supplementation further enhances exercise-induced plasma IL-6.,” Jour Appl Physiol 2003; 95(1):145-48.

 

Huang, E., et al., “Oral glutamine to alleviate radiation-induced oral mucositis: a pilot randomized trial,” Int Jour Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000; 46(3):535-39.

 

Huffman, F., et al., “L-glutamine supplementation improves nelfinavir-associated diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals,” HIV Clin Trials 2003; 4(5):324-29.

 

Iwashita, S., et al., “Impact of glutamine supplementation on glucose homeostasis during and after exercise,” Jour Appl Physiol 2005; 99(5):1858-65.

 

Jacobson, S., et al., “Glutamine does not prevent paclitaxel-associated myalgias and arthralgia,” Jour Support Oncol 2003; 1(4):274-78.

 

Kargotich, S., et al., “Plasma glutamine changes after high-intensity exercise in elite male swimmers,” Res Sports Med 2005; 13(1):7-21.

 

Keast, D., et al., “Depression of plasma glutamine concentration after exercise stress and its possible influence on the immune system,” Med Jour Aust 1995; 162(1):15-8.

 

Kozelsky, T., et al., “Phase III double-blind study of glutamine versus placebo for the prevention of acute diarrhea in patients receiving pelvic radiation therapy,” Jour Clin Oncol 2003; 21(9):1669-74.

 

Lacey, J., et al., “Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?” Nutr Rev 1990; 48 (8):287-309.

 

Maskovitz, B., et al., “Glutamine metabolism and utilization relevance to major problems in health care,” Pharmacol Res 1994; 30(1):61-71.

 

Muscaritoli, M., et al., “Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity,” Eur Jour Cancer 1997; 33(2):319-20.

 

Ockenga, J., et al., “Effect of glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis,” Clin Nutr 2002; 21(5):409-16.

 

Ockenga, J., et al., “Glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 59(11):1302-09.

 

O'Riordain, M., et al., “Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient,” Nutrition 1996; 12(11-12 Suppl):S82-S84.

 

Peng, X., et al., “Clinical and protein metabolic efficacy of glutamine granules-supplemented enteral nutrition in severely burned patients,” Burns 2005; 31(3):342-46.

 

Pitt, D., et al., “Glutamate excitotoxicity in a model of multiple sclerosis,” Nature Med 2000; 6(1):67-70.

 

Quan, Z., et al., “Effect of glutamine on change in early postoperative intestinal permeability and its relation to systemic inflammatory response,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2004; 10(13):1992-94.

 

Rogers, L., et al., “Voluntary alcohol consumption by rats following administration of glutamine,” Jour Biol Chem 1955; 214(2):503-06.

 

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

 

Shabert, J., The Ultimate Nutrient Glutamine. New York: Avery Publishing Group, 1994.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Souba, W., “Glutamine and cancer,” Ann Surgery 1993; 218(6):715-28.

 

Stubblefield, M., et al., “Glutamine as a neuroprotective agent in high-dose paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: a clinical and electrophysiologic study,” Clin.Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2005; 17(4):271-76.

 

Sun, J., et al., “Glutamine for chemotherapy induced diarrhea: a meta-analysis,” Asia Pacific Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 2193):380-85.

 

Thomas, R., et al., “Perturbation of the glutamate-glutamine system in alcohol dependence and remission,” Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 36(7):1359-65.

 

Welbourne, T., et al.., “Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1995; 61(5):1058-61.

 

Yoshida, S., et al., “Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients,” Nutrition 2001; 17(9):766-68.

 

Zhong, X., et al., “Intravenous glutamine for severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis,” World Jour Crit Care Med 2013; 2(1):4-8.

 

Zhou, Y., et al., “The effect of supplemental enteral glutamine on plasma levels, gut function, and outcome in severe burns: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial,” JPEN Jour Parenter Enteral Nutr 2003; 27(4):241-45.

 

Ziegler TR, et al., “Safety and metabolic effects of l-glutamine administration in humans,” Jour Parenteral Enteral Nutr 1990; 14(4 supplement):137S-146S.

 

Manganese

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

 

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

 

Takeda, A. “Manganese action in brain function,” Brain Res Rev 2003; 41(1): 79–87.

 

Selenium

 

Berkson, B., The Alpha Lipoic Acid Breakthrough. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1998. 

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Brinkman, M., et al., “Are men with low selenium levels at increased risk of prostate cancer?” Eur Jour Cancer 2006; 42(15):2463-71.

 

Brown, K., et al., “Selenium, selenoproteins, and human health: a review,” Pub Health Nutr 2001; 4(2B):593-99.

 

Fillion, M., Natural Prostate Healers. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 1999.

 

Hurst, R., et al., “Selenium and prostate cancer: systemic review an mea-analysis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 96(1):111-22.

 

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.

 

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

 

Rayman, M., “The argument for increased selenium intake,” Proc Nutr Soc 2002; 6192):203-15.

 

Rayman, M., “The importance of selenium to human health,” Lancet 2000; 356(9225):233-41.

 

Vitamin A

 

Allen, L., et al., “Iron supplements: scientific issues concerning efficacy and implications for research and programs,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132 (4 Suppl):813S-819S.

 

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, The, “The effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers,” NEJM 1994; 330(15):1029-35.

 

Aune, D., et al., “Dietary compared with blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 96(2):356-73.

 

Bellemere, G., et al., “Amazing actions of retinol from molecular to clinical,” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 22(4):200-09.

 

Berson, E., et al., “A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa,”Arch Ophthalmol 1993; 111(6):761-72.  

 

Bitteto, D., et al., “Vitamin A deficiency is associated with hepatitis C virus chronic infection and with unresponsiveness to interferon-based antiviral therapy,” Hepatology 2013; 57(3):925-33.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Booij, M., et al., “Acitretin revisited in the era of biologics,” Jour Dermatol Treat 2011; 22(2):86-9.

 

Boucheron-Houston, C., et al., “Long-term vitamin A deficiency induces alteration of adult mouse spermatogenesis and spermatogonial differentiation: direct effect on spermatogonial gene expression and indirect effects via somatic cells,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2013; 24(6):1123-35.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Brownstein, D., The Miracle of Natural Hormones. West Bloomfield, MI: Medical Alternatives Press, 1999.

 

Cerhan, J., et al., “A cohort study of diet and prostate cancer risk,” Cancer Epidem Biomark Preven 1998; 7:175.

 

Chew, E., et al, “Secondary analyses of the effects of lutein/zeaxanthin on age-related macular degeneration progression: AREDS2 report No. 3,” JAMA Ophthalmol 2014; 132(2):142-49. 

 

Chew, E., et al., “Effect of omega-3 fatty acids, lutein/zeaxanthin, or other nutrient supplementation on cognitive function: the AREDS2 randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2015; 314:791-801.

 

Cho, E., et al., “Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy,” Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122(6):883-92.

 

Christen, W., et al., “A randomized trial of β-carotene and age-related cataract in US physicians,” Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121(3):372-78. 

 

Christian, P., et al., “Interactions between zinc and vitamin A: an update,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 68(2 Suppl):435S-441S.

 

Clinton, S., et al., “Cis-trans isomers of lycopene in the human prostate: a role in cancer prevention?” FASEB Jour 1995; 9:A442.

 

Crook, T., The Memory Cure. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1998.

 

Dai, Z., et al., “Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: the Singapore Chinese Health Study,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2014; 29(2):408-17.

 

D'Odorico, A., et al., “High plasma levels of alpha- and β-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis: results from the Bruneck study,” Atherosclerosis 2000; 153(1):231-39.

 

Durairajanayagam, D., et al., “Lycopene and male infertility,” Asian Jour Androl 2014; 16(3):420–25.

 

Dwyer, J., et al., “Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and plasma antioxidants: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24(2):313-19. 

 

Eliassen, A., et al., “Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of eight prospective studies,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2012; 104(24):1905-16. 

 

Evans, J., “Antioxidant supplements to prevent or slow down the progression of AMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eye 2008; 22(6):751-60.

 

Feskanich, D., et al. “Vitamin A intake and hip fracture among postmenopausal woman,” JAMA 2002; 287(1):47–54.

 

Friedman, L., “Saffron improves vision in aging humans,” Life Extension July 2016, p. 24-31.

Gale, C., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44(6):2461-65. 

 

Gann, P., et al., “A phase II randomized trial of lycopene-rich tomato extract among men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia,” Nutr Cancer 2015; 67(7):1104-12. 

 

Gey, K., et al., “Low plasma retinol predicts coronary events in healthy middle-aged men: The PRIME Study,” Atherosclerosis 2010; 208(1):270-74.

 

Gontero, P., et al., “A randomized double-blind placebo controlled phase I-II study on clinical and molecular effects of dietary supplements in men with precancerous prostatic lesions,” Chemoprevention or "chemopromotion"? Prostate 2015; 75(11):1177-86.

 

Huk, D., et al., “Increased dietary intake of vitamin A promotes aortic valve calcifications in vivo,” Artherioscler Thromb Vas Biol 2013; 33(2):285-93.

 

Ito, Y., et al., “A population-based follow-up study on mortality from cancer or cardiovascular disease and serum carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in Japanese inhabitants,” Asian Pac Jour Cancer Prev 2006; 136(7):533-46.

 

Jang, J., et al., “Kinetic analysis shows that iron deficiency decreases liver vitamin A mobilization in rats,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5):1291-96.

 

Johansson, S., et al., “Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2001; 16(10):1899-1905.

 

Johnson, E., et al., “The role of carotenoids in human health,” Nutr Clin Care 2002; 5(2):56-65.

 

Kabat, G., et al., “Intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the women’s Health Initative,” Nutr Cancer 2012; 64(2):245-54.

 

Key, T., et al.  “Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk: pooled analysis of 15 studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2015; 102(5):1142-57. 

 

Kim, E., et al., “A comparison of vitamin A and cyclosporine A 0.05% eye drops for treatment of dry eye syndrome,” Amer Jour Ophthamol 2009; 147(2):206-13.

 

Krinsky, N., et al., “Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and diseases,” Mol Aspects Med 2005; 26(6):459-516.

 

Krinsky, N., Vitamin A. Oregon: Linus Pauling Institute, 2002.

 

Kritchevsky, S., “β-Carotene, carotenoids and the prevention of coronary heart disease,” Jour Nutr 1999; 129(1):5-8. 

 

Kumar, N., et al., “Results of a randomized clinical trial of the action of several doses of lycopene in localized prostate cancer: administration prior to radical prostatectomy,” Clin Med Urol 2008; 1:1-14.

 

Leenders, M., et al., “Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition,” Int Jour Cancer 2014; 135(12):2930-39. 

 

Leoncini, E., et al., “Carotenoid intake from natural sources and head and neck cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2015; 24(7):1003-11.

 

Li, C., et al., “Serum alpha-carotene concentrations and risk of death among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up Study,” Arch Inter Med 2011; 171(6):507-15.

 

Li, Y., et al., “Lycopene, smoking and lung cancer,” Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1997; 38:113.

Lieber, C., “Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease,” Alcohol Res Health 2003; 27(3):220-31.

 

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

 

Liu, R., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation and association with visual function in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015; 56(1):252-58.

 

Lo-Coco, F., et al., “Retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide for acute promyelocytic leukemia,” NEJM 2013; 369(2):111-21.

 

Ma, I., et al., “Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmolgy 2012; 119(11):2290-97.

 

Ma, I., et al., “Improvement of retinal function in early age-related macular degeneration after lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial,” Amer Jour Ophthalmol 2012; 154(4):625-34.

 

Ma, l., et al., “Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 2012; 119(11):2290-97.

 

Mares-Perlman, J., et al., “The body of evidence to support a protective role for lutein and zeaxanthin in delaying chronic disease. Overview,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132(3):518S-524S.

 

Mason, J., “Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients.” Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.

 

Min, K., et al., “Association between leukocyte telomere length and serum carotenoid in US adults,” Eur Jour Nutr 2016.

 

Mizuno, Y., et al., “Serum vitamin A concentrations in asthmatic children in Japan,” Pediatr Int 2006; 48(3):261-64.

 

Morris, M., et al., “Associations of vegetable and fruit consumption with age-related cognitive change,” Neurology 2006; 67(8):1370-76. 

 

Mu, L., et al., “Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health,” Jour Sci Food Agric 2010; 90(1):2-12.

 

Murray, I., et al., “Lutein supplementation over a one-year period in early AMD might have a mild beneficial effect on visual acuity: the CLEAR study,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013; 54(3):1781-88.

 

Neuhouser, M., et al., “Olestra is associated with slight reductions in serum carotenoids but does not markedly influence serum fat-soluble vitamin concentrations,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(3):624-31.

 

Orfanos, C., et al., “Oral retinoids in the treatment of seborrhoea and acne,” Dermatology 1998; 196(1):140-47.

 

Osganian, S., et al., “Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2003; 77(6):1390-99.

 

Paran, E., et al., “Effect of lycopene on blood pressure, serum lipoproteins, plasma homocysteine, and oxidative stress markers in grade I hypertensive patients,” Amer Jour Hyperten 2001; 140–141A, Abstract P-333.

 

Paran, E., et al., “Effect of lycopene, an oral natural antioxidant, on blood pressure,” Jour Hyperten 2001; 19:S74, Abstract P-1.204.

 

Pietrizk, K., et al., “Antioxidant, vitamins, cancer, and cardiovascular disease,” NEJM Letter to the Editor 1996; 335(14):1065–66.

 

Pongeharosen, S., et al., “Protective effect of silk lutein on ultraviolet B-irradiated human keratinocytes,” Biol Res 2013; 46(1):39-45.

 

Qu, M., et al., “Lycopene prevents amyloid (beta)-Induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunctions in cultured rat cortical neurons,” Neurochem Res 2016; 41(6):1354-64.

 

Qu, M., et al., “Protective effects of lycopene against methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons,” Brain Res 2013; 1540:92-102.

 

Rao, A., et al., “Role of lycopene as antioxidant carotenoid in the prevention of chronic diseases: a review,” Nutri Res 1999; 19:305-23.

 

Richer, S., et al., “Double-masked place-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial),” Optometry 2004; 75(4):216-30.

 

Rissanen, T., et al., “Low plasma lycopene concentration is associated with increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20(12):2677-81. 

 

Roberts, J., et al., “The photobiology of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye,” Jour Ophthalmol 2015; 2015:687173.

 

Ross, A., “Vitamin A.” Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th Ed: Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014, p.260-277.

 

Russell, R., “The vitamin A spectrum: from deficiency to toxicity,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(4):878-84.

 

Sahni, S., et al., “Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2009; 24(6):1086-94. 

 

Sasamoto, Y., et al., “Effect of 1-year lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual function,” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2011; 249(12):1847-54.

 

Semba, R., et al. “Vitamin A and immunity to viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections,” Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58(3):719–27.

 

Semba, R., et al., “The anemia of vitamin A deficiency: epidemiology and pathogenesis,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 56(4):271-81.

 

Sesso, H., et al., “Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79(1):47-53.

 

Sibulesky, L., et al., “Safety of <7500 RE (<25000 IU) vitamin A daily in adults with retinitis pigmentosa,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69(4):656-63.

 

Sies, H., et al., “Vitamins E, C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants,” Amer Jour Nutr 995; 62 (6 Supple):1315S-1321S.

 

Solomons, N. “Vitamin A.” Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Ed, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p.149-84. 

 

Sugiura, M., et al., “High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for bone loss and osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects: prospective cohort study,” PLoS One 2012; 7(12):e52643.

 

Suharno, D., et al., “Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia,” Lancet 1993; 342(8883):1325-28.

 

Thielitz, A., et al., “Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: update on efficacy and safety,” Amer Jour Clin Dermatol 2008; 9(6):369-81.

 

Tyrer, L., “Nutrition and the pill,” Jour Reprod Med 1984; 29(7):S547-S550.

 

Underwood, B., et al., “The contribution of vitamin A to public health,” Faseb Jour 1996; 10(9):1040-48.

 

van Poppel, G., et al., “Effect of β-carotene on immunological indexes in healthy male smokers,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1993; 57(3):402-07.

 

Voutilainen, S., et al., “Carotenoids and cardiovascular health,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(6):1265-71. 

 

Weigert, G., et al., “Effects of lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52(11):8174-78.

 

Wu, J., et al., “Intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids and age-related macular degeneration during 2 decades of prospective follow-up,” JAMA Ophthalmol 205; 133(12):1415-24.

 

Yang, H., et al., “Vitamin A for treating measles in children,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 2005.

 

Yilmaz, A., et al., “Adjuvant effect of vitamin A on recurrent lower urinary tract infections,” Pediatr Int 2007; 49(3):3110-13.

 

Vitamin D

 

Al Faraj, S., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia,” Spine 2003; 28(2):177-9.

 

Ali, F., et al., “Loss of seizure control due to anticonvulsant-induced hypocalcemia,” Am Pharmacother 2004; 38(6):1002-5.

 

Armas, L., et al., “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:5387-391.

 

Ashtari, F., et al., “The relation between vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms of multiple sclerosis,” Jour Res Med Sci 2013; 18(3):193-97.

 

Baird, D., et al., “Vitamin D and risk of uterine fibroids,” Epidemiology 2013; 24(3):447-53.

 

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al., “Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” JAMA, 2005; 293(18):2257-64.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Borissova, A., et al., “The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” Int J. Clin Pract 2003; 57(4):258-61.

 

Borkar, V. et al., “Low levels of vitamin D in North Indian children with newly diagnosed type I diabetes,” Horm Metab Res 2005; 37:680-83.

 

Bouilon, R., et al., “Vitamin D as potential baseline therapy for blood pressure control,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2009; 22:816.

 

Braun, L., et al., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide. 4th Ed. Volume 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Busse, B., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency induces early signs of aging in human bone, increasing the risk of fracture,” Science Transl Med 2013; 5(192):ra88.

 

Cao, Y., et al., “Association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and osteoarthritis: a systemic review,” Rheumatology 2013; 52(7):1323-34.

 

Chiu, K., et al., “Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820–25.

 

Christiansen, C., et al., “Anticonvulsant action of vitamin D in epileptic patients? A controlled pilot study,” Br. Med J. 1974; 2(913):258-9.

 

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

 

Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older,” NEJM 1997; 337(10):670–76.

 

Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women,” Ann Intern Med 1991; 115(7):505–12.

 

de Boer, I., et al., “25-hydroxyvitamin D levels inversely associated with risk for developing coronary artery calcification,” Jour Amer Soc Nephrol 2009; 20:1805-12.

 

Gagnon, C., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes after 5 years: results from a national, population-based prospective study (the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle study),” Diabetes Care 2011; 34:1133-38.

 

Garcia-Bailo, B., et al., “Plasma vitamin D and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in adult Canadians, 2007-2009,” Prev Chronic Dis 2013; June 6, 10:E91.

 

Garland, C., et al., “What is the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cancer risk? Nutrition Reviews 2007; 65(8):S91-S95.

 

Ginde, A., et al., “Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the U.S. population, 1988-2004,” Arch Intern Med 2008; 169(6):626-32.

 

Glendenning, P., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in vitamin D-insufficient hip fracture patients after supplementation with ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol,” Bone 2009; 45(5):870-75.

 

Goldberg, P., et al., “Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D,” Med Hypotheses, 1986: 21(2):193-200.

 

Grant, W., et al., “An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation,” Cancer 2002; 94(6):1867-75. 

 

Heaney R., et al., “Vitamin D(3): is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 96(3):E447-52.

 

Holick, M., et al., “Vitamin D and bone health,” Jour Nutr 1996; 126:1159S–1164S.

 

Holick, M., et al., “Calcium and vitamin D. Diagnostics and therapeutics,” Clin Lab Med 2000; 20(3):569-90. 

 

Huisman, A., et al., “Vitamin D levels in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and fibromyalgia,” J. Rheumatol 2001; 28(11)2535-9.

 

Kini, S., et al., “A reversible form of cardiomyopathy,” J. Postgrad Med 2003; 49(1):85-7. 

Lansdown, A., et al., “Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter,” Psychopharm 1998; 135(4):319-23.

 

Lee, J., et al., “Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2011; 107:1636-38.

 

Leroith, D., “How vitamin D works on bone,” Endocrinol and Metabol Clinics of North Amer 2012; 41(3):567-69.

 

Littorin, B., et al., “Lower levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D among young adults at diagnosis of autoimmune type I diabetes compared with control subjects: results from the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS),” Diabetologia 22006; 49:2847-52.

 

Llewellyn, D., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and cognitive impairment,” Jour Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2009; 22(3):188-95.

 

Llewellyn, D., et al., “Vitamin D and cognitive impairment in the elderly U.S. population,” Jour Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011; 66A(1):59-65.

 

Maddock, J., et al., “Vitamin D and common mental disorders in mid-life: cross-sectional and prospective findings,” Clin Nutr 2013; 32(5):758-64.

 

Matsuoka, L., et al., “Chronic sunscreen use decreases the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a preliminary study,” Arch Dermatol 1988; 124:1802-804.

 

McAlindon., T., et al., “Relation of dietary intake and serum levels of vitamin D to progression of osteoarthritis of the knee among participants in the Framingham study,” Ann Int Med 1996; 125(5):353-9.

 

Papadimitropoulos, E., et al., “Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VIII: Meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women,” Endocrine Rev 2002; 23(4):560-60.

 

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs. 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

 

Pittas, A., et al., “The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Jour Cllin Endocrino Metab 2007; 92:2017-29.

 

Plotnikoff, G., et al., “Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain,” May Clin Proc 2003; 78(12):1463-70.

 

Romagnoli, E., et al., “Short and long-term variations in serum calciotropic hormones after a single very large dose of ergocalaciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in the elderly,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2008; 93(8):3015-20.

 

Sabry, M., et al., “Serum vitamin D3 level inversely correlates with uterine fibroid volume in different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional observational study,” Int Jour Women’s Health 2013; 5:93-100.

 

Schottker, B., et al., “Strong association of 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 97(4):782-93.

 

Scragg, R., et al., “Myocardial infarction is inversely associated with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: a community-based study,” Int J. Epidemiol 1990; 19(3):559-63.

 

Shahbeigi, S., et al., “Vitamin D3 concentration correlates with the severity of multiple sclerosis,” Int Jour Prev Med 2013; 4(5):585-91.

 

Sorensen, O., et al., “Myopathy in bone loss of ageing improvement by treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium,” Clin Sci (London) 1979; 56(2):157-61.

 

Thomas, G., et al., “Vitamin D levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study,” Diabetes Care 2012; 35:1158-64.

 

Thys-Jacob S., Vitamin D and calcium in menstrual migraine,” Headache 1994; 34(9):544-

6. 

Thys-Jacobs, S., et al., “Vitamin D and calcium dysregulation in the polycystic ovarian syndrome,” Steroids 1999; 64(6):430-5.

 

Toffanello, E., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency predicts cognitive decline in older men and women: The Pro.V.A. Study,” Neurology 2014; 83(24):2292-98.

 

Trang, H., et al., “Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2.” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 68:854-58.

 

Van de Berge, G., et a., “Bone turnover in prolonged critical illness: effect of vitamin D,” J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88(10):4623-32. 

 

Vasquez, A., et al., “The clinical importance of vitamin D (cholecalciferol): a paradigm shift with implications for all healthcare providers,” Alternative Therapies 2004; 10(5):35.

 

Woeckel, V., et al., “1alpha,25(OH)2D3 acts in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation to enhance mineralization via accelerated production of mature matrix vesicles,” Jour Cell Physiol 2010; 225(2):593-600.

 

Wolden-Kirk, H., et al., “Extraskeletal Effects of Vitamin D.” Osteoporosis: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 2012; 41(3):571-94.

 

Yoshida, T., et al., “How Vitamin D Works on Bone.” Osteoporosis: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 2012; 41(3):557-69.

 

Yousef, F., et al., “Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian Women: case control study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 9(1):105-10.

 

Zempleni, J., et al. Handbook of Vitamins, 5th Edition. New York: CRC Press, 2014.

 

Zittermann, A., et al., “Low vitamin D status: a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure?” J. Am Coll Cardiol, 2003; 41:105-12.

 

 Zinc

 

Anderson, R., et al., “Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(3):212-18.

 

Baum, M., et al., “Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1421S-1423S. 

 

Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers.” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. “Zinc.” In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:442-501.

 

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Jackson, J., et al., “Zinc and the common cold: a meta-analysis revisited,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1512S-1515S.

 

Jyawardena, R., et al., “Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and metanalysis,” Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 2012; 4:13. 

 

Mocchegiani, E., et al., “Therapeutic application of zinc in human immunodeficiency virus against opportunistic infections,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1424S-1431S. 

 

O'Dell, B., “Role of zinc in plasma membrane function,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1432S-1436S. 

 

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

 

Prasad, A., “Clinical, immunological, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of zinc,” Exp Gerontol 2008; 43(5):370-77. 

 

Prasad, A., “Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Ann Intern Med 2000; 133(4):245-52.

 

Prasad, A., “Zinc deficiency in humans: a neglected problem,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17(6):542-43.

 

Prasad, A., “Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells,” Mol Med 2008; 14(5-6):353-57. 

 

Schulman, R., Solve It With Supplements. New York: Rodale, Inc. 2007.

 

Smith, W., et al., “Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 1999; 106(4):761-67.

 

Tan, J., et al., “Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 2008; 115(2):334-41. 

 

van Leeuwen, R., et al., “Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” JAMA 2005; 294(24):3101-07. 

 

VandenLangenberg, G., et al., “Associations between antioxidant and zinc intake and the 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 1998; 148(2):204-14. 

 

Wapnir, R., “Zinc deficiency, malnutrition and the gastrointestinal tract,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1388S-1392S. 

 

OTHER NUTRIENTS

Beta Glucans

 

Akramiene, D., et al., “Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system,” Medicina (Kaunas) 2007; 43(8):597-606.

 

Albeituni, S., et al., “The effects of B-glucans on dendritic cells and implications for cancer therapy,” Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2013; 13(5):689-98.

 

Bowe, W., “Cosmetic benefits of natural ingredients: Mushrooms, feverfew, tea, and wheat complex,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2013; 12(9 Suppl):S133-S136.

 

Bowe, W., et al., “Cosmetic benefits of natural ingredients,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2014; 13(9):1021-25.

 

Chan, G., et al., “The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells,” Jour Hematol Oncol 2009; 2:25.

 

Du, B., et al., “Skin health promotion effects of natural beta-glucan derived from cereals and microorganisms: A review,” Phytother Res 2014; 28(2):159-66.

 

Kogan, G., et al., “Yeast cell wall polysaccharides and antioxidants and antimutagens: Can they fight cancer?” Neoplasma 2008; 55(5):387-93.

 

Murphy, E., et al., “Immune modulating effect of B-glucan,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010; 13(6):656-61.

 

Pan, P., et al., “The immunomodulatory potential of natural compounds in tumor-bearing mice and humans,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019; 59(6):992-1007.

 

Volman, J., et al., “Dietary modulation of immune function by beta-glucans,” Physiol Behav 2008; 94(2):276-84.

 

Whitehead, A., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat B-glucan: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2014; 100(6):1413-21.

 

Xiang, D., et al., “Anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with B-glucans: A novel anti-cancer immunotherapy,” Curr Med Chem 2012; 19(25):4298-305.

 

Carnosine

 

“The anti-aging effects of carnosine,” Life Extensions 2003; January.

 

Babizhayev, M., et al., “Efficacy of n-acetylcysteine in the treatment of cataracts,” Drugs RD 2002; 3(2):87-103.

 

Babizhayev, M., et al., “L-carnosine modulates respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species production in neutrophil biochemistry and function: May oral dosage form of non-hydrolized dipeptide L-carnosine complement anti-infective anti-influenza flu treatment, prevention and self-care as an alternative to the conventional vaccination,” Curr Clin Pharmacol 2014; 9(2):93-115.

 

Babizhayev, M., et al., “Lipid peroxidation and cataracts: n-acetyl-carnosine as a therapeutic tool to manage age-related cataracts in human and canine eyes,” Drugs RD 2004; 5(3):125-39.

 

Babizhayev, M., et al., “Management of the virulent influenza virus infection by oral formulation of nonhydrolyzed carnosine and isopeptide of carnosine-attenuating proinflammatory cytokine-induced nitric oxide production,” Amer Jour Ther 2012; 1991):e25-47.

 

Babizhayev, M., et al., “Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide (“Bioactivated Jewish Penicillin’) as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: Signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (HINI) virus,” Jour Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2013; 24(1):1-26.

 

Boldynev, A., et al., “The antioxidative properties of carnosine, a natural histidine containing dipeptide,” Biochem Int 1987; 15:1105-13.

 

Boldyrev, A., et al., “Biochemical and physiological evidence that carnosine is an endogenous neuroprotector against free radicals,” Cell Mol Neurobiol 1997; 17(2):259-71.

 

Boldyrev, A., et al., “Carnosine protects against excitotoxic cell death independently of effects on reactive oxygen species,” Neuroscience 1999; 94(2):571-77.

 

Brownson, C., et al., “Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein,” Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 28(10):1564-70.

 

Bulygina, E., et al., “Effect of carnosine on age-induced changes in senescence-accelerated mice,” Jour Anti-Aging Med 1999; 2(4):337-42.

 

Gulyaeva, N., “Superoxide-scavenging activity of carnosine in the presence of copper and zinc ions,” Biochemistry (Moscow) 1987; 52(7 Part 2):1051-54.

 

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Carnosine protects proteins against methylglyoxal-mediated modifications,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 248(1):28-32.

 

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent,” FEBS Lett 1995; 371(1):81-5.

 

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Pluripotent protective effects of carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1998; 854:37-53.

 

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Protective effects of carnosine against malondialdehyde-induced toxicity towards cultured rat brain endothelial cells,” Neurosci Lett 1997; 238(3):135-38.

 

Horning, M., et al., “Endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection: role of zinc, copper, and carnosine,” Brain Res 2000; 852(1):56-61.

 

Nagai, K., et al., “Action of carnosine and beta-alanine on wound healing,” Surgery 1986; 100(5):815-21.

 

Preston, J., et al., “Toxic effects of beta-amyloid (25-35) on immortalised rat brain endothelial cell: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and beta-alanine,” Neurosci Lett 1998; 242(2):105-08.

 

Price, D., et al., “Chelating activity of advanced glycation end-product inhibitors,” Jour Bio Chem 2001; 276:48967-72.

 

Quinn, P., et al., “Carnosine: its properties, functions, and potential therapeutic applications,” Mol Aspects Med 1992; 13:379-44.

 

Ririe, D., et al., “Vasodilatory actions of the dietary peptide carnosine,” Nutrition 2000; 16:168-72.

 

Roberts, O., “Dietary peptides improve wound healing following surgery,” Nutrition 1998; 14:266-69.

 

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

 

Stvolinsky, S., et al., “Anti-ischemic activity of carnosine,” Biochem (Masc) 2000; 65:849-55.

 

Stvolinsky, S., et al., “Carnosine: an endogenous neuroprotector in the ischemic brain,” Cell Mol Neurobiol 1999; 19(1):45-56.

 

Wang, A., et al., “Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings,” Biochem (Masc) 2000; 65:869-71.

 

Colostrum

 

Braun, L., Colostrum. In Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed., Australia: Churchill Livingstone, 2015.

 

Brinkworth, G., et al., “Concentrated bovine colostrum protein supplementation reduces the incidence of self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in adult males,” Eur Jour Nutr 2003; 42:228-32.

 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Prevention of influenza episodes with colostrum compared with vaccination in healthy and high-risk cardiovascular subjects: the epidemiologic study in San Valentino,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2007; 13(2):130-36.

 

Choi, H., et al., “Antioxidant activity of a bovine colostrum in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injured rat model,” Jour Emerg Med 2007; 33(3):337-38.

 

Choi, H., et al., “Bovine colostrum prevents bacterial translocation in an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injured rat model,” Jour Med Food 2009; 12(1):37.

 

Crooks, C., et al., “Effect of bovine colostrum supplementation salivary IgA in distance runners,” Int Jour Sport Nutri & Exerc Metab 2006; 16:47-64.

 

Davidson, G., et al., “Passive immunization of children with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus,” Lancet 1989; 2:709-12.

 

Doillon, C., et al., “Modulatory effect of a complex fraction derived from colostrum on fibroblast contractility and consequences on tissue,” Int Wound Jour 2011; 8:280-90.

 

Floren, C., et al., “ColoPlus, a new product based on bovine colostrum, alleviates HIV-associated diarrhea,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 2006; 41:682-86.

 

Hammon, H., et al., “Lactation biology symposium: Role of colostrum and colostrum components on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves,” Jour Anim Sci 2013; 91:685-95.

 

Jensen, G., et al., “A novel extract from bovine colostrum whey supports innate immune functions. II. Rapid changes in cellular immune function in humans,” Prev Med 2012; 54:5124-29.

 

Kim, J., et al., “Combined effects of bovine colostrum and glutamine in diclofenac-induced bacterial translocation in rat,” Clin Nutr 2005a; 24:785-93.

 

Kim, J., et al., “Protective effects of bovine colostrum on non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory drug induced intestinal damage in rats,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2005b; 14:103-07.

 

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Korhomen, H., et al., “Bovine milk antibodies for health,” Brit jour Nutr 2000; 84(Suppl 1):S136-S146.

 

Marcuzzi, A., et al., “Presence of Il-9 in paired samples of human colostrum and transitional milk,” Jour Hum Lact 2013; 29(1):26-31.

 

Mir, R., et al., “Structural and binding studies of C-terminal half (C-lobe) of lactoferrin protein with COX-2 specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),” Arch Biochem Biophys 2010; 5:196-202.

 

Pacyna, J., et al., “Survival of rotavirus antibody activity derived from bovine colostrum after portage through the human gastrointestinal tract,” Jour Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32:162-67.

 

Playford, R., et al., “Co-administration of the health food supplement bovine colostrum, reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase intestinal permeability,” Clin Sci (Lond) 2001; 100:627-33.

 

Playford, R., et al., “Colostrum and mild-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 72(3):5-14.

 

Plettenberg, A., et al., “A preparation from bovine colostrum in the treatment of IV-positive patients with chronic diarrhea,” Clin Invest 1993; 71:42-45.

 

Rathe, M., et al., “Clinical application of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review,” Nutr Rev 2014; 72(4):237-54.

 

Rump, J., et al., “Treatment of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with immunoglobulin from bovine colostrum” Clin Investig 1992; 79:388-94.

 

Sarker, S., et al., “Successful treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children with immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum,” Pediatr Infect Dis Jour 1998; 17:1149-54.

 

Shing, C., et al., “The influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in highly trained cyclists,” Brit Jour Sports Med 2006; 40(9):97-801.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Tacker, C., et al., “Efficacy of bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate in preventing illness after Shigella flexneri challenge,” Amer Jour Trop Med Hyg 1992; 47:276-83.

 

Ylitalo, S., et al., “Rotaviral antibodies in the treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis,” Acta Paediatr 1998; 87:264-67.

 

Glutathione

 

Asher, B., et al., “Oxidative stress and low glutathione in common ear, nose, and throat conditions: A systemic review,” Altern Therp Health Med 2016; 22(5):44-50.

 

Burnham, E., et al., “The relationship between airway antioxidant levels, alcohol use disorders,, and cigarette smoking,” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2016; Sept 14 (Epub ahead of print).

 

Choi, I., et al., “Longitudinal changes of cerebral glutathione (GSH) levels associated with clinical course of disease progression in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis,” Multiple Sclerosis 2016.

 

James, S., et al., “Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism,” Amer Jour Clin Nutri 2004; 80(6):1611-17.

 

Kern, J., et al., "A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders." Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(12):CR677-82.

 

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. North Bergen, New Jersey: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

 

Lang, C., et al., “Low blood glutathione levels in healthy aging adults,” Jour Lab Clin Med 1992; 20(5):720-25.

 

Loguercio, C., et al., “Glutathione supplementation improves oxidative damage in experimental colitis," Dig Liver Dis 2003; 35(9):635-41.

 

Misckley, L., et al., “Central nervous system uptake of intranasal glutathione in Parkinson’s disease,” NPJ Parkinson’s Disease 2016; 2:16002.

 

Pastore, A., et al., “Analysis of glutathione: implication in redox and detoxification,” Clin Chim Acta 2003; 333(1):19-39.

 

Perlmutter, D., BrainRecovery.com. Naples, Florida: The Perlmutter Health Center, 2000.

 

Pierce, S, et al., Multiple Sclerosis in Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine, 24th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

 

Rahman, I., et al., “Oxidative stress and regulation of glutathione in lung inflammation,” Eur Respir Jour 2000; 16(3):534-54.

 

Ramires, P., et al., "Glutathione supplementation and training increases myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion in vivo,” Amer Jour Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001; 281(2):H679-88.

 

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

 

Sinha, S., et al., “Improvement of glutathione and total antioxidant status with yoga,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2007; 13910):1085-90.

 

Wu, G., et al., "Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health," Jour Nutr 2004; 134(3):489-92.

 

 Sulforaphane

 

Alumkal, J., et al., “A phase II study of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extracts in men with recurrent prostate cancer,” Invest New Drugs 2015; 33(2):480-89.

 

Bahadoran, Z., et al., “Broccoli sprouts reduce oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes: A randomized double-blind clinical trial,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2011, 65, 972–977.

 

Bahadoran, Z., et al., “Effect of broccoli sprouts on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients: A randomized double-blind clinical trial,” Int Jour Food Sci Nutr 2012; 63:767–71.

 

Brown, R., et al., “Sulforaphane improves the bronchoprotective response in asthmatics through Nrf2-mediated gene pathways,” Respir Res 2015; 16:106.

 

Chang, Y, et al., “The effects of broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane on lipid peroxidation and helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa,” Gut Liver 2015; 9: 486–93.

 

Durham, A., et al., “The anti-inflammatory effects of sulforaphane are not mediated by the Nrf2 pathway,” Eur Resp Jour 2014; 44:P3332.

 

Fahey J., et al., “Sulforaphane bioavailability from glucoraphanin-rich broccoli: Control by active endogenous myrosinase,” PLoS One 2015; 10(11):e0140963.

 

Fahey, J., et al., “Bioavailability of sulforaphane following ingestion of glucoraphanin-rich broccoli sprout and seed extracts with active myrosinase: A pilot study of the effects of proton pump inhibitor administration,” Nutrients 2019; 11(7):E1489.

 

Ferreira, P., et al., “Cruciferous vegetables as antioxidative, chemopreventive and antineoplastic functional foods: Preclinical and clinical evidences of sulforaphane against prostate cancers,” Curr Pharm Des 2018; 24(40):4779-93.

 

Furuya, A., et al., “Sulforaphane inhibits HIV infection of macrophages through Nrf2,” PLoS Pathog 2016; 12(4):e1005581.

 

Galan, M., et al., “Oral broccoli sprouts for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: A preliminary report,” Dig Dis Sci 2004; 49:1088–90.

 

Haristoy, X., et al., “Efficacy of sulforaphane in eradicating helicobacter pylori in human gastric xenografts implanted in nude mice,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 47(12):3982-84.

 

Heiss, E., et al., “Nuclear factor kappa B is a molecular target for sulforaphane-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms,” Jour Biol Chem 2001; 276:32008-015.

 

Houghton, C., “Sulforaphane: Its ‘coming of age’ as a clinically relevant nutraceutical in the prevention and treatment of chronic Disease,” Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019: 2716870.

 

Houghton, C., et al., “Sulforaphane: Transitional research from laboratory bench to clinic,” Nutr Rev 2013; 71(11):709-26.

 

Hyun, T., “A recent overview on sulforaphane as a dietary epigenetic modulator,” EXCLI Jour 2020; 19:131-34.

 

James, D., et al., “Novel concepts of broccoli sulforaphanes and disease: Induction of phase II antioxidant and detoxification enzymes by enhanced-glucoraphanin broccoli,” Nutr Rev 2012; 70(11):654-65.

 

Kensler, T., et al., “Modulation of the metabolism of airborne pollutants by glucoraphanin-rich and sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout beverages in Qidong, China,” Carcinogenesis 2012; 33:101-07.

 

Kikuchi, M., et al., “Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2015; 21(43):12457-67.

 

Kim, H., et al., “Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane restores the age-related decrease of T(H)1 immunity: role of dendritic cells,” Jour Allergy Clin Immunol 2008; 121:1255-61.

 

Li, Y., et al., “Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells,” Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16(9):2580-90.

 

Li, Z., et al., “Natural sulforaphane from broccoli seeds against influenza A Virus replication in MDCK Cells,” Natural Product Comm 2019; 1-8.

 

Lynch, R., et al., “Sulforaphane from broccoli reduces symptoms of autism: A follow-up case series from a randomized double-blind study.,” Glob Adv Health Med 2017; 6:2164957X17735826.

 

Miller, L., et al., “Effect of broccoli sprouts and live attenuated influenza virus on peripheral blood natural killer cells: A randomized, double-blind study,” PLoS One 2016; 11(1):e0147742.

 

Murashima, M., et al., “Phase 1 study of multiple biomarkers for metabolism and oxidative stress after one-week intake of broccoli sprouts,” Biofactors 2004; 22:271–75.

 

Noah, T., et al., “Effect of broccoli sprouts on nasal response to live attenuated influenza virus in smokers: a randomized, double-blind study,” PLoS One 2014; 9(6):e98671.

 

Patel, V., et al., “Dietary antioxidants significantly attenuate hyperoxia-induced acute inflammatory lung injury by enhancing macrophage function via reducing the accumulation of airway HMGB1,” Int Jour Mol Sci 2020; 21(3).

 

Sun, Y., et al., “Protective effects of sulforaphane on type 2 diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy via AMPK-mediated activation of lipid metabolic pathways and NRF2 function,” Metabolism 2020; 102:154002.

 

Sun, Z., et al., “Protective mechanism of sulforaphane in Nrf2 and anti-lung injury in ARDS rabbits,” Exp Ther Med 2018; 15:4911-15.

 

Tsan, M., et al., “Heat shock proteins and immune system,” Jour Leukoc Biol 2009; 85:905-10.

 

Vanduchova, A., et al., “Isothiocyanate from broccoli, sulforaphane, and its properties,” Jour Med Food 2019; 22(2):121-26.

 

Wyler, E., et al., “Single-cell RNA-sequencing of herpes simplex virus 1-infected cells connects NRF2 activation to an antiviral program,” Nat Commun 2019; 10:4878.

 

Yagishita, Y., et al., “Broccoli or sulforaphane: Is it the source or dose that matters?” Molecules 2019; 24(19):3593.

 

Yanaka, A., et al., “Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans,” Cancer Prev Res 2009; 2:353–60.

 

Yu, J., et al., “Sulforaphane suppresses hepatitis C virus replication by up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression through PI3K/Nrf2 pathway,” PLoS One 2016; 11(3):e0152236.

 

THERAPIES THAT DECREASE INFLAMMATION

Aloe Vera

 

Atherton, P., “Aloe vera revisited,” Brit Jour Phytother1998; 4:76–83.

 

Bosley, C., et al., “A phase III trial comparing an anionic phospholipid-based (APP) cream and aloe vera-based gel in the prevention and treatment of radiation dermatitis,” Int Jour Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003; 57:S4–S38.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Chalaprawat, M., et al., “The hypoglycemic effects of aloe vera in Thai diabetic patients.” Jour Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50(1):3S–45S.

 

Chithra, R., et al., “Influence of aloe vera on collagen characteristics in healing dermal wounds in rats,” Mol Cell Biochem1998; 181:71–6.

 

Choonhakarn, C., et al., “A perspective, randomized clinical trial comparing topical aloe vera with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis,” Jour Eur Acad Derm Venereol 2010; 24(2):168-72.

 

Davis, K., et al., “Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aloe vera for irritable bowel syndrome,” Int Jour Clin Pract 2006; 60(9):1080-86.

 

Fulton, J., “The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing,” Jour Dermatol Surg Oncol 1990; 16:460–67.

 

Furukawa, F., et al., “Chemopreventive effects of Aloe arborescens on N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamsters,” Cancer Lett2002; 178:117–22.

 

Grover, J., et al., “Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81(1):81-100.

 

Haggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing,” Phytother Res 1993; 7:S48-S52.

 

Hajheydari, Z., et al., “Effect of Aloe vera topical gel combined with tretinoin in treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, prospective trail,” Jour Dermatol Treat 2014; 25(2):123-29.

 

Hayes, S., “Lichen planus: A report of successful treatment with aloe,” Gen Dent1999; 47:268–72.

 

Heggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effect of aloe on wound healing in an excisional wound model,” Jour Altern Complement Med1996; 2:271–77.

 

Heggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing,” Phytoher Res 1993, 7:S48–S52.

 

Hutter, J., et al. “Anti-inflammatory C-glucosyl chromone from Aloe barbadensis,” Jour Nat Prod 1996; 59:541–43.

 

Im, S., et al., “In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered aloe vera gel,” Arch Pharm Res 2010; 33(3):451-56.

 

Ishii, Y., et al., “Studies of aloe. V: Mechanism of cathartic effect,” Biol Pharm Bull1994; 17:651–53.

 

Kirshnon, P., “The scientific study of herbal wound healing therapies: Current state of play,” Curr Anaes Crit Care 2006; 17(1-2):21-27.

 

 

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

 

Langmead, L., et al. “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19:739–47.

 

Maddock-Jennings, W., et al., “Novel approaches to radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: a literature review,” Complement Ther Clin Pract 2005; 11(4):224-31.

 

Maenthalsong, R., et al., “The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing. A systemic review,” Burns 2007; 33(6):713-18.

 

McCarty, M., “Glucomannan minimizes the postprandial insulin surge: a potential adjuvant for hepatothermic therapy,” Med Hypothesis 2002; 58(6):487-90.

 

McCauley, R., “Frostbite: Methods to minimize tissue loss,” Postgrad Med 1990; 88:67–8.

 

Montaner, J., et al., “Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of acemannan in advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease,” Jour Acquir Immune Defic Syn Hum Retrovirol1996; 12:153–57.

 

Paulsen, E., et al., “A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris,” Jour Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol2005; 19:326–31.

 

Quillin, P., Beating Cancer With Nutrition. Tulsa, OK: Nutrition Times Press, Inc, 2000.

 

Sato, Y., et al., “Studies on chemical protectors against radiation XXXI: Protective effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by x-irradiation,” Yakugaku Zasshi 1990; 110:876–84.

 

Shelton, M., “Aloe vera, its chemical and therapeutic properties,” Int Jour Dermatol1991; 30:679–83.

 

Stargrove, M., et al., Herb, Nutrient and Drug Interactions: Clinical Applications and Therapeutic Strategies. St. Louis: Mosby/Elsevier, 2008.

 

Surjushe, A., et al., “Aloe vera: A short review,” Indian Jour Dermatolol 2008; 53(4):163-66.

 

Syed, T., et al., “Management of genital herpes in men with 0.5% Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream A placebo-controlled double-blind study,” Jour Derm Treatment1997; 8:99–102.

 

Syed, T., et al., “Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study,” Trop Med Int Health1996; 1:505–09.

 

Thomas, D., et al., “Acemannan hydrogel dressing for pressure ulcers: A randomized, controlled trial,” Adv Wound Care 1998; 11:273–76.

 

Vardy, A., et al., “A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) emulsion in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis,” Jour Derm Treatment1999; 10:7–11.

 

Visuthikosol, V., et al., “Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and historic study,” Jour Med Assoc Thai1995; 78:403–09.

 

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc., 2000.

 

West, D., et al., “Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure,”Amer Jour Infect Control2003; 31:40–2.

 

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care2003; 26:1277–94.

 

Youngchaiyudha, S., et al., “Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. Int clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus,” Phytomed 1996; 3(3):241-43.

 

Zawahry, M., et al., “Use of aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses,” Int Jour Dermatol1973; 12:68–73.

 

American Skullcap

 

Awad, R., et al., “Phytochemical and biological analysis of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): a medicinal plant with anxiolytic properties,” Phytomed 2003; 10(8):640-49.

 

Brock, C., et al., “American Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on mood in healthy volunteers,” Phytother Res 2014; 28(5):692-98.

 

Sarris, J., et al., “Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence,” Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21(12):841-60.

 

Wolfson, P., et al., “An investigation into the efficacy of Scutellaria lateriflora in healthy volunteers,” Altern Ther Health Med 2003; 9:74-8.

 

Zhang, Z., et al., “Characterization of chemical ingredients and anticonvulsant activity of American skullcap,” Phytomedicine 2009; 16:485-93.

 

 

Boswellia

 

Abdel-Tawab, M., “Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data,” Clin Pharmacokinet 2011; 50(6):349-69.

 

Ahangarpour, A., et al., “Effect of Boswellia serrata supplementation on blood lipid, hepatic enzymes and fructosamine levels in type2 diabetic patients,” Jour Diabet Metabol Disorders 2014; 13:21.

 

Ammon, H., “Modulation of the immune system by Boswellia serrata extracts and boswellic acids,” Phytomedicine 2010; 17(11):862-67.

 

Ammon, J., “Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases,” Planta Med 2006; 72(12):1100–16.

 

Anthoni, C., et al., “Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acid derivatives in experimental colitis,” Amer Jour Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006; 290:G1131–37.

 

Banno, N., et al., “Anti-inflammatory activities of the triterpene acids from the resin of Boswellia carteri,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107(2):249–53.

 

Basch, E., et al., “Boswellia: an evidence-based systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration,” Jour Herb Pharmacother 2004; 4(3):63–83.

 

Catanzaro, D., et al., “The intestinal microbiome, barrier function, and immune system in inflammatory bowel disease: a tripartite pathophysiological circuit with implications for new therapeutic directions,” PLoS One 2015; 10(5):e0125375.

 

Chevrier, M., et al., “Boswellia carterii extract inhibits Th1 cytokines and promotes Th2 cytokines in vitro,” Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005; 12:575–80.

 

Chopra, A., et al., “Randomized double blind trial of an ayurvedic plant derived formulation for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 2000; 27(6): 365–72.

 

Ernst, E., “Frankincense: systematic review,” BMJ 2008; 337:a2813.

 

Etzel, R., “Special extract of Boswellia serrata (H15) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Phytomed 1996; 3:91–4.

 

Frank, A., et al., “Analysis of frankincense from various Boswellia species with inhibitory activity on human drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry after automated on-line extraction,” Jour Chromatogr A 2006; 1112(1-2):255–62.

 

Gulliams, T., et al., “Managing chronic inflammation: natural solutions,” The Standard 2006; 7(2):1-8.

 

Gupta, I., et al., “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study,” Eur Jour Med Res 1998; 3(11):511-14.

 

Gupta, I., et al., “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with chronic colitis,” Planta Med 2001; 67(5):391-95.

 

Gupta, I., et al., “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis.” Eur Jour Med Res 1997; 2(1): 37–43.

 

Khan, M., “Pharmacological evidences for cytotoxic and antitumor properties of Boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata,” Jour Ethanopharmacol 2016; 191:315-23.

 

Kimmakar, N., et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial,” Phytomedicine 2003; 10(1):3-7.

 

Krüger, P., et al., “Metabolism of boswellic acids in vitro and in vivo,” Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36(6):135–42.

 

Kulkarni, R., et al., “Efficacy of an ayurvedic formulation in rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study,” Indian Jour Pharm 1992; 24:98–101.

 

Madisch, A., et al., “Boswellia serrata extract for the treatment of collagenous colitis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial,” Int Jour Colorectal Dis 2007; 22:1445–51.

 

Poeckel, D., et al., “Boswellic acids: biological actions and molecular targets,” Curr Med Chem 2006; 13:3359–69.

 

Pungle, P., et al., “Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 2003; 41:1460–62.

 

Roy, S., et al., “Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to anti-inflammatory Boswellia,” Antioxid Redox Signal 2006; 8(3-4):653-60.

 

Safahy, H., et al., “Inhibition by boswellic acids of human leukocyte elastase,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 28(1):460-63.

 

Sander, O., et al., “Is H15 (resin extract of Boswellia serrata, “incense”) a useful supplement to established drug therapy of chronic polyarthritis? Results of a double-blind pilot study,” Z Rheumatol 1998; 57(1):11–6.

 

Sharma, S., et al., “Pharmacokinetic study of 11-keto-β-boswellic acid,” Phytomedicine 2004; 11:255–60.

 

Siddiqui, M., “Boswellia serrata, a potential anti-inflammatory agent: an overview,” Indian Jour Pharm Sci 2011; 7393):255-61.

 

Siemoneit, U., et al., “On the interference of boswellic acids with 5-lipoxygenase: mechanistic studies in vitro and pharmacological relevance,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2009; 606(1-3): 246–54.

 

Singh, G., et al., “Pharmacology of an extract of salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent,” Agents Actions 1986; 18:407–12.

 

Singh, S., et al. “The gastric ulcer protective effect of boswellic acids, a leukotriene inhibitor from Boswellia serrata, in rat,” Phytomedicine 2008; 15(6-7):408–15.

 

Sontakke, S., et al., “Open, randomized, controlled clinical trial of Boswellia serrata extract as compared to valdecoxib in osteoarthritis of knee,” Indian Jour Pharmacol 2007; 39:27–9.

 

Syrovets, T., et al., “Acetyl-boswellic acids inhibit lipo-polysaccharide-mediated TNF-α induction in monocytes by direct interaction with IkB kinases,” Jour Immunol 2005; 174: 498–506.

 

Tausch, L., et al., “Identification of human cathepsin G as a functional target of boswellic acids from the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense,” Jour Immunol 2009; 183: 3433–42.

 

Wildfeuer, A., et al., “Effects of boswellic acids extracted from a herbal medicine on the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,” Arzneimittelforschung 1998; 48:668–74.

 

Cayenne Pepper

 

Ahuja, K., et al., “Effects of chilli consumption on postprandial glucose, insulin, and energy metabolism,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 84(1):63-9.

 

Ahuja, K., et al., “Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women,” Brit Jour Nutr 2006; 96(2):239-42.

 

Ahuja, K., et al., “The effect of 4-week chilli supplementation on metabolic and arterial function in humans,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2007; 61(3):326-33.

 

Bouraoui, A., et al., “Effects of capsicum fruit on theophylline absorption and bioavailability in rabbits,” Drug-Nutrient Interact 1988; 5:345-50.

 

Chrubasik, S., et al., “Effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin cream in the treatment of chronic soft tissue pain,” Phytother Res 2010; 24(12):1877-85.

 

D'Alonzo, A., et al., “In vitro effects of capsaicin: antiarrhythmic and antiischemic activity,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 1995; 272(2-3):269-78.

 

Deal, C., et al., “Treatment of arthritis with topical capsaicin: a double-blind trial,” Clin Ther 1991; 13(3):383-95.

 

Hakas, J., “Topical capsaicin induces cough in patient receiving ACE inhibitor,” Ann Allergy 1990; 65:322.

 

Hautkappe, M., et al., “Review of the effectiveness of capsaicin for painful cutaneous disorders and neural dysfunction,”Clin Jour Pain 1998; 14(2):97-106.

 

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

 

Jensen, P., et al., “Management of painful diabetic neuropathy,” Drugs Aging 2001; 18(10):737-49.

 

Kenney, J., et al., “Prevention and management of pain associated with Herpes zoster,” Jour Pharmaceut Care Pain Symptom Contr 1999; 7(3):7-26.

 

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

 

Laslett, L., et al., “Capsaicin for osteoarthritis pain,” Prog Drug Res 2014; 68:277-91.

 

Mozsik, G., “Capsaicin as new orally applicable gastroprotective and therapeutic drug alone or in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in healthy human subjects and in patients,” Prog Drug Res 2014; 68:209-58.

 

Paice, J., et al., “Topical capsaicin in the management of HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy,” Jour Pain Symtom Manage 2000; 19(1):45-52.

 

Petersen, K., et al., “Capsaicin evoked pain and allodynia in post-herpetic neuralgia,” Pain 2000; 88:125-33.

 

Rains, C., et al., “Topical Capsaicin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis,” Drugs and Aging 1998; 7(4):317-28.

 

Sharma, S., et al., “Mechanisms and clinical uses of capsaicin,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2013; 720(1-3):55-62.

 

Stam, C., et al., “The efficacy and safety of a homeopathic gel in the treatment of acute low back pain: a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind comparative clinical trial,” Brit Homeopath Jour 2001; 90(1):21-8.

 

Stankus, S., et al., “Management of herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia,” Amer Fam Physician 2000; 61(8):2437-44, 2447-48.

 

Volmink, J., et al., “Treatments for postherpetic neuralgia—a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Fam Pract 1996; 13(1):84-91.

 

Yoshioka, M., et al., “Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women,” Brit Jour Nutr 1998; 80(6):503–10.

 

Chinese Skullcap

 

Amosova, E., et al., “The search for new anti-ulcer agents from plants in Siberia and the Far East,” Eksp Clin Farmakol 1998; 61(6):31-5.

 

Arweiler, N., et al., “Clinical and antibacterial effect of anti-inflammatory toothpaste formulation with Scutellaria baicalensis extract on experimental gingivitis,” Clin Oral Investig 2011; 15(6):909-13.

 

Bak, E., et al., “Wogonin ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia via PPARalpha activation in db-db mice,” Clin Nutri 2013; S0261-5614(13):00091-5.

 

Blaszczyk, T., et al., “Screening for antimycotic properties of 56 traditional Chinese drugs” Phytother Res 2000; 14(3):210-12.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Butenko, I., et al., “Anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of leukotriene C4 biosynthesis in vitro by flavonoid baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis georgi roots,” Agents Actions 39(spect no) 1993: C49-51.

 

Chan, B., et al., “Synergistic effects of baicalein with ciprofloxacin against NorA over-expressed methylcillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and inhibition of MRSA pyruvate kinase,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2011; 137:767-73.

 

Chang, W., et al., “Baicalein protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by attenuation of mitochondrial oxidant injury and JNK activation,” Jour Cell Biochem 2011; 112(10):2873-81.

 

Chang, W., et al., “Different effects of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin on mitochondrial function, glutathione content and cell cycle progression in human hepatoma cell lines,” Planta Med 2002; 68(2):128-32.

 

Chen, L., et al., “Wogonin, a bioactive flavonoid in herbal tea, inhibits inflammatory cyclooxyagenase-2 gene expression in human lung epithelial cancer cells,” Mol Nutri Food Res 2008; 52(11):1349-57.

 

Cheng, P., et al., “Protective effect of baicalein against endotoxic shock in rats in vivo and in vitro,” Biochem Pharmacol 2007; 73(6):793-804.

 

Gasiorowski, K., et al., “Flavones from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi: drugs of the future in neurogeneration,” CNS Neur Disorders Drug Targets 2011; 10(2):184-91.

 

Hirayama, C., et al., “A multicenter randomized clinical controlled clinical trial of Sho-Saiko-to in chronic active hepatitis” Gastroenterol Jpn 1989; 24(6):715-19.

 

Hour, M., “Baicalein, ethyl acetate, and chloroform extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis inhibit the neuraminidase activity of pandemic 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza A viruses,” Evidenced-based Complement Altern Med 2013.

 

Huang, R., et al., “Anti-hepatitis B virus effects of wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis,” Planta Med 2000; 66:694-98.

 

Hui, K., et al., “Anxiolytic effect of wogonin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Gorgi,” Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 64(9):1415-24.

 

Jung, H., et al., “Antiallergic effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on inflammation in vivo and in vitro,” Jour Ethno Pharmacol 2012; 141(1):345-49.

 

Kang, T., et al., “Effect of baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis on prevention of noise-induced hearing loss,” Neurosci Lett 2010; 469(3):298-302.

 

Kubo, M., et al., “Scutellaria radix. X: Inhibitory effects of various flavonoids on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro,” Chem Pharm Bull 1984; 32(12):5051-54.

 

Kumagai, T., et al., “Scutellaria baicalensis, a herbal medicine: anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity against acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines,” Leuk Res 2007; 31:523-30.

 

Lai, M., et al., “Significant decrease of cyclosporine bioavailability in rats caused by a decoction of the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis,” Plant Med 2004; 7092):132-37.

 

Lee, C., et al., “Pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics properties of radix scutellariae and its bioactive flavones,” Biopharm Drug Dispos 2011; 32:427-45.

 

Lin, C., et al., “In vivo hepatoprotective effect of baicalin, balcalein and wogonin from Scutellaria rivularis,” Phytother Res 1996; 10(8):451-64.

 

Linnebur, S., et al., “Hepatotoxicity associated with Chinese skullcap contained in Move Free Advanced dietary supplement: two case reports and review of the literature,” Pharmacotherapy 2010; 30:750, 258e-262e.

 

Makino, T., et al., “Comparison of the major flavonoid content of S. baicalensis, S. lateriflora, and their commercial products,” Jour Nat Med 2008; 62(3):294-99.

 

Mehendale, S., et al., “Scutellaria baicalensis and a constituent flavonoid, baicalein, attenuate ritonavir induced gastrointestinal side-effects,” Jour Pharm Pharmcol 2007; 59(11):1567-72.

 

Nan, G., et al., “Scutellaria baicalensis inhibits liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation or carbon tetrachloride in rats,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2002; 54(4):555-63.

 

Narita, Y., et al., “Treatment of epileptic patients with the Chinese herbal medicine ‘Saiko-Keishi-To’ SK,” IRCS Sci 1982; 10(2):88-9.

 

Regulska-Ilow, B., et al., “Influence of bioflavonoids from the Radix extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on the level of serum lipids, and the development of laboratory rats feed with fresh and oxidized fats,” Nahrung 2004; 48(2):123-28.

 

Sarris, J., et al., “Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence,” Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21(12):841-60.

 

Shao, Z., et al., “Baicalein attenuates oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes,” Amer Jour Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002; 282:H999-H1006.

 

Shen, Y., et al., “Mechanisms in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalin and balcalein in human leukocytes,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2003; 465(1-2):171-81.

 

Takizawa, H., et al., “Prostaglandin 12 contributes to the vasodepressor effect of baicalein in hypertensive rats,” Hypertension 1998; 31(3):866-71.

 

Yamashiki, M., et al., “Herbal medicine sho-saiko-to induces in vitro granulocytes colony-stimulating factor production on peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Jour Clin Lab Immunol 1992; 3792):83-90.

 

Curcumin

 

 Aggarwal, B., et al., “Anti-cancer potential of curcumin: preclinical and clinical studies,” Anticancer Res 2003; 23(1A):363-98.

 

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Curcumin suppresses the paclitaxel-induced nuclear factor kappaB pathway in breast cancer cells and inhibits lung metastasis of human breast cancer in nude mice,” Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 7490-98.

 

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Curcumin: The Indian solid gold,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2007; 595:1-75.

 

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases,” Int Jour Biochem Cell Biol 2009; 41:40-59.

 

Aggarwal, S., et al., “Inhibition of growth and survival of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by curcumin via modulation of nuclear factor-kB signaling,” Int Jour Cancer 2004; 111: 679-92.

 

Aravindan, N., et al., “Curcumin inhibits NF-kappa B mediated radioprotection and modulates apoptosis related genes in human neuroblastoma cells,” Cancer Biol Ther 2008, 7: 569-76.

 

Baum, L., et al., “Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study,” Pharmacol Res 2007; 56:509-14.

 

Bengmark, D., “Curcumin, a toxic antioxidant and natural NFkappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic disease,” Jour Paenter Enteral Nutr 2006; 31(1):45-51.

 

Bharti, A., et al., “Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates the constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and IkappaBalpha kinase in human multiple myeloma cells, leading to suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis,” Blood 2003; 101:1053-62.

 

Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A., Brinckmann, J., Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communication. 2000.

 

Bundy, R., et al., “Tumeric extract may improve irritable bowel syndrome symptomology in otherwise healthy adults: a pilot study,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2004; 10(66):1015-18.

 

Cao, Y., et al., “Therapeutic targets of multiple angiogenic factors for the treatment of cancer and metastasis,” Adv Cancer Res 2007; 97: 203-24.

 

Chan, M., “Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical,” Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49:1551-56.

 

Chan, M., et al., “In vivo inhibition of nitric oxide synthase gene expression by curcumin, a cancer preventive natural product with anti-inflammatory properties,” Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:1955-62.

 

Chattopadhyay, I., et al., “Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications,” Curr Sci 2004; 87:44-50.

 

Chiu, J., et al., “Curcumin prevents diabetes associated abnormalities in the kidneys by inhibiting p300 and nuclear factor-kappaB,” Nutrition 2009; 25:964-72.

 

Chuang, S., et al., “Basal levels and patterns of anticancer drug-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and its attenuation by tamoxifen, dexamethasone, and curcumin in carcinoma cells,” Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 63: 709-16.

 

Elattar, T., et al., “The inhibitory effect of curcumin, genistein, quercetin and cisplatin on the growth of oral cancer cells in-vitro,” Anticancer Res 2000; 20:1733-38.

 

Fiorillo, C., et al., “Curcumin protects cardiac cells against ischemia reperfusion injury: effects on oxidative stress, NF-kappaB and JNK pathways,” Free Radic Biol Med 2008; 45: 839-46.

 

Garg, S., et al., “Curcumin for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 10:CD008424.

 

Gilliams, T., et al., “Managing chronic inflammation: natural solutions,” The Standard 2006; 7(2):1-8.

 

Gururaj, A., et al., “Molecular mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 297: 934-42.

 

Hanai, H., et al., “Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4:1502-06.

 

He, L., et al., “Curcumin protects pre-oligodendrocytes from activated microglia in vitro and in vivo,” Brain Res 2010; 1339:60-9.

 

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57:1221-27.

 

Holt, P., et al., “Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50(11):2191-93.

 

Jagetia, G., et al., “’Spicing up’ of the immune system by curcumin,” Jour Clin Immunol 2007; 27:19-35.

 

Jobin, C., et al., “Curcumin blocks cytokine-mediated NF-kappa B activation and proinflammatory gene expression by inhibiting inhibitory factor I-kappa B kinase activity,” Jour Immunol 1999; 163:3474-83.

 

Jurenka, J., “Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcima longa: A review of preclinical and clinical research,” Altern Med Rev 2009; 14:141-53.

 

Kapakos, G., et al., “Cardiovascular protection by curcumin: molecular aspects,” Indian Jour Biochem Biophys 2012; 49:306-15.

 

Kim, D., et al., “Curcuminoids in neurodegenerative diseases,” Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov 2012; 7:184-204.

 

Krishnaswamy, K., “Traditional Indian spices and their health significance,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 17(Suppl 1):265-68.

 

Li, L., et al., “Liposome-encapsulated curcumin: in vitro and in vivo effects on proliferation, apoptosis, signaling, and angiogenesis,” Cancer 2005; 104:1322-31.

 

Lim, G., et al., “The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse,” Jour Neurosci 2001; 21(21):8370-77.

 

Lin, Y., et al., “Curcumin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in ovarian carcinoma by targeting the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway,” Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:3423-30.

 

LoTempio, M., et al., “Curcumin suppresses growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin Cancer Res 2005, 11:6994-7002.

 

Masuda, T., et al., “Chemical studies on antioxidant mechanisms of curcumin: analysis of oxidative coupling products from curcumin and linoleate,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2001; 49:2539-47.

 

Mehta, K., et al., “Antiproliferative effect of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) against human breast tumor cell lines,” Anticancer Drugs 1997; 8:470-81.

 

Mukhopadhyay, A., et al., “Curcumin downregulates cell survival mechanisms in human prostate cancer cell lines,” Oncogene 2001; 20: 7597-7609.

 

Nakamura, K., et al., “Curcumin downregulates AR gene expression and activation in prostate cancer cell lines,” Int Jour Oncol 2002; 21:825-30.

 

Ng, T., et al., “Curry consumption and cognitive function in the elderly,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2006; 164(9):898-906.

 

Parodi, F., et al., “Oral administration of difenuloylmethane (curcumin) suppresses proinflammatory cytokines and destructive connective tissue remodeling in experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms,” Ann Vas Surg 2006; 20(3):360-68.

 

Prucksunand, C., et al., “Phase II clinical trial on effect of the long turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) on healing of peptic ulcer,” Asian Jour Trop Med Pubic Health 2001; 32(1):208-15.

 

Rao, C., “Regulation of COX and LOX by curcumin,” Adv Exp Med Bio 2007; 595:213-26.

 

Ray, B., et al., “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: different molecular targets and potential therapeutic agents including curcumin,” Curr Opin Pharmacol 2009; 4:34-44.

 

Sa, G., et al., “Anti-cancer effects of curcumin: cycle of life and death,” Cell Div 2008; 3:14- 20.

 

Sahebkar, A., “Are curcuminoids effective C-reactive protein-lowering agents in clinical practice? Evidence from a meta-analysis,” Phytotherapy Res 2014; 28(5):633-42.

 

Sharma, R., et al., “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of curcumin,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2007; 595:453-70.

 

Shehzad, A., et al., “Curcumin in inflammatory diseases,” Biofactors 2013; 39:69-77.

 

Singh, S., et al., “Activation of transcription factor NF-kB is suppressed by curcumin (diferuloylmethane),” Jour Biol Chem 1995; 270:24995-25000.

 

Sreejayan, R., “Curcuminoids as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 1994, 46:1013-16.

 

White, B., et al., “Clinical Inquiry. Does turmeric relieve inflammatory conditions?” Jour Fam Pract 2011; 60:155-56.

 

Wilken, R., et al., “Curcumin: A review of anti-cancer properties and therapeutic activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” Molecular Cancer 2011; 10:12.

 

Yadav, V., et al., “Novel formulation of solid lipid microparticles of curcumin for anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity for optimization of therapy of inflammatory bowel disease,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 3:311-21.

 

Feverfew

 

Barsby, R., et al., “Feverfew and vascular smooth muscle: Extracts from fresh and dried plants show opposing pharmacological profiles, dependent upon sesquiterpene lactone content,” Planta Med 1993; 59:20–5.

 

Biggs, M., et al., “Platelet aggregation in patients using feverfew for migraine,” Lancet 1982; 2:776.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Cady, R., et al., “A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sublingual feverfew and ginger (LipiGesic M) in the treatment of migraine,” Headache 2011; 51:1078-86.

 

Chavez, M., et al., “Feverfew,” Hosp Pharm 1999; 34:436–61.

 

Collier, H., et al., “Extract of feverfew inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis,” Lancet 1980; 2:922–23.

 

De Weerdt, C., et al., “Herbal medicines in migraine prevention randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of a feverfew preparation,” Phytomedicine 1996; 3(3):225-30.

 

Ernst, E., et al., “The efficacy and safety of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): an update of a systematic review,” [Review] Public Health Nutr 2000; 3(4A):509-14.

 

Ferro, E., et al., “The combined effect of acupuncture and Tanacetum parthenium on quality of life in women with headache: randomised study,” Acupunct Med 2012; 30(4):252-57.

 

Groenewejen, W., et al., “A comparison of the effects of an extract of feverfew and parthenolide, a component of feverfew, on human platelet activity in-vitro,” Jour Pharma Pharmacol 1990; 42(8):553-57.

 

Hayes, N., et al., “The activity of compounds extracted from feverfew on histamine release from rat mast cells,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 1987; 39:466–70.

 

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

 

Heptinstall, S., et al., “Inhibition of platelet behaviour by feverfew: A mechanism of action involving sulphydryl groups,” Folia Haematol Int Mag Klin Morphol Blutforsch 1988; 115:447–49.

 

Johnson, E., et al., “Efficacy of feverfew as prophylactic treatment of migraine,” Brit Med Jour 1985; 291:569–73.

 

Kim, I., et al., “Parthenolide-induced apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells and anti-fibrotic effects in an in vivo rat model,” Exp Mol Med 2012; 44(7):448-56.

 

Kim, S., et al., “Parthenolide suppresses tumor growth in a xenograft model of colorectal cancer cells by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis,” Int Jour Oncol 2012; 41(4):1547-53.

 

Kuritzky, A., et al., “Feverfew in the treatment of migraine: its effect on serotonin uptake and platelet activity,” Neurology 1994; 44(Suppl 2):A201.

 

Kwok, B., et al., “The anti-inflammatory natural product parthenolide from the medicinal herb feverfew directly binds to and inhibits IkappaB kinase,” Chem Biol 2001; 8:759–66.

 

Long, C., et al., “Bioactive flavonoids of Tanacetum parthenium revisited,” Phytochemistry 2003; 64:567–69.

 

Maizels, M., et al., “A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial,” Headache 2004; 44:885-90.

 

Makheja, A., et al., “A platelet phospholipase inhibitor from the medicinal herb feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium),” Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1982; 8:653–60.

 

Martin, K., et al., “Parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) protects skin from UV irradiation and external aggression,” Arch Dermatol Res 2008; 300(2):69-80.

 

Mathema, V., et al., “Parthenolid, a sesquitermene lactone, expresses multiple anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities,” Inflammation 2012; 35(2):560-65.

 

Miller, L., “Herbal medicinals: Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions,” Arch Intern Med 1998; 158:2200–11.

 

Miyata, N., et al., “Inhibitory effects of parthenolide on antigen-induced microtubule formation and degranulation in mast cells,” Int Immunopharmacol 2008; 8(6):874-80.

 

Modi, S., et al., “Medications for migraine prophylaxis,” Amer Fam Physician 2006; 73(1):72-8.

 

Murphy, J., et al., “Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of feverfew in migraine prevention,” Lancet 1988; 2:189–92.

 

Palevitch, D., “Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) as prophylactic treatment for migraine: A double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Phytother Res 1997; 11:508–11.

 

Pareck, A., et al., “Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review,” Pharmacognosy Rev 2011; 5(9):103-10.

 

Pattrick, M., et al., “Feverfew in rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind, placebo controlled study,” Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48(7):547-49.

 

Pittler, M., et al., “Feverfew for preventing migraine,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 1:2286.

 

Pugh, W., et al., “Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors in feverfew,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 1988; 40:743–45.

 

Saranitzky, E., et al., “Feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a systematic review,” Jour Diet Suppl 2009; 6(2):91-103.

 

Schiapparelli, P., et al., “Non-pharmacological approach to migraine prophylaxis: part II,” Neurol Sci 2010; 31(Suppl 1):S137-S139.

 

Setty, A., et al. “Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: Mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects,” Semin Arthritis Rheum 2005; 34:773–84.

 

Silberstein, S., “Preventive treatment of headaches,” Curr Opin Neurol 2005; 18(3):289-92.

 

Sumner, H., et al., “Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase in leukocytes by feverfew. Involvement of sesquiterpene lactones and other components,” Biochem Pharmacol 1992; 43:2313–20.

 

Vickers, H., “Feverfew and migraine,” Brit Med Jour 1985; 291:827.

 

Yasenetskaya, T., et al., “Effects of an extract of feverfew on endothelial cell integrity and on cAMP in rabbit perfused aorta,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 1988; 40:501–02.

 

Zhang, S., et al., “Critical roles of intracellular thiols and calcium in parthenolide-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells,” Cancer Lett 2004; 208:143–53.

 

Ginger

 

 Ajith, T., et al., “Protective effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against anticancer drug doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity,” Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(9):3178-81.

 

Al-Amin, Z., et al., “Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Brit Jour Nutri 2006; 96(4):660-66.

 

Ali, B., et al., “Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research,” Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(2):409-20.

Alizadeh-Navaei, R., et al., “Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial,” Saudi Med Jour 2008; 29(9):1280-84.

 

Altman, R., et al., “Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with  osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44(11):2531-38

 

Apariman, S., et al., “Effectiveness of ginger for prevention of nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy,” Jour Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89(12):2003-09.

 

Bhandari, U., et al., “Antihepatotoxic activity of ginger ethanol extract in rats,” Pharm Biol 2003; 41(1):68-71.

 

Black, C., et al., “Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise,” Jour Pain 2010; 11(9):894-903.

 

Bliddal, H., et al., “A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000; 8:9-12.

 

Bordia A., et al., “Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar, and platelet aggregation ion patients with coronary heart disease,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997; 56(5):379-84.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Cady, R., et al., “Gelstat Migraine (sublinguially administered feverfew and ginger compound) for acute treatment of migraine when administered during the mild pain phase,” Med Sci Monitor Int Med Jour Exp Clin Res 2005; 11(9):P165-P169.

 

Chaiyakunapruk, N., “The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 2006; 194(1):95-9.

 

Dabaghzadeh, F., et al., “Ginger for prevention or treatment of drug-induced nausea and vomiting,” Curr Clin Pharmacol 2014; 9(4):387-94.

 

El-Abhar, H., et al., “Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2008; 118(3):367-72.

 

Ernst, E., “Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” Brit Jour Anaesth 2000; 84(3):367-71.

 

Fuhrman, B., et al., “Ginger extract consumption reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation, and attenuates development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5):1124-31.

 

Ghayur, M., et al., “Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50(10):1889-97.

 

Glacosa, A., et al., “Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract?” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19(7):1291-96.

 

Gonlachanvit, S., et al., “Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 307(3):1098-1103.

 

Gregory, P., et al., “Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis,” Amer Fam Physician 2008; 77(2):177-84.

 

Grontved, A., et al., “Ginger root against seasickness: a controlled trial on the open sea,” Acta Otolaryngol 1988; 105:45-49.

 

Gupta, Y., et al., “Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale),” Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2001; 23(9):501-03.

 

Haniadka, R., et al., “Zingiber officinale (ginger) as an anti-emetic in cancer chemotherapy: a review,” Jour Altern Complet Med 2012; 18(5):440-44.

 

Hasai-Ranjbar, S., et al., “A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2009; 15(25):3073-85.

 

Hasenohrol, R., et al., “Anxiolytic-like effect of combined extracts of Zingiber officinal and Ginkgo biloba in the elevated plus-maze,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996; 53(2):271-75.

 

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

 

Huang, Q., et al., “Anti-5-hydroxytryptomine 3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger,” Chem Pharm Bull 1991; 39(2):397-99.

 

Imanishi, N., et al., “Macrophage-mediated inhibitory effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc, a traditional oriental herbal medicine, on the growth of influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2006; 34(1):157-69.

 

Jeyakumar, S., et al., “Antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in rats feed a high fat diet,” Med Sci Res 1999; 27(5):341-44.

 

Kalava, A., et al., “Efficacy of ginger on intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective cesarean section patients,” Eur Jour Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013; 169(2):184-88.

 

Langner, E., et al., “Ginger: history and use,” Adv Ther 1998; 15(1):25-44.

 

Lu, C., “Function of ginger on cerebral vascular disease and its gateway,” Chin Jour Clin Rehab 2005; 9(45):187-89.

 

Mahady, G., et al., “Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori,” Anticancer Res 2003; 23(5A):3699-3702.9-92.

 

Marx, W., et al., “Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review,” Nutri Rev 2013; 71(4):245-54.

 

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

 

Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., et al., “The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and the glycemic indices in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Complem Ther Med 2014; 22(1):9-16.

 

Mustafa, T., et al., “Possible leads for arachidonic acid metabolism altering drug from natural products,” Jour Drug Dev 1990; 3(1):47-60.

 

Nostro, A., et al., “Effects of combining extracts (from propolis or Zingiber officinale) with clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori,” Phytother Res 2006; 20(3):187-90.

 

Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra, E., et al., “Effective anti-platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent constituents of ginger,” Thromb Res 2003; 111(4-5):259-65.

 

Phillips, S., et al., “Zingiber officinale (ginger)—an antiemetic for day case surgery,” 

Anaesthesia 1993; 48(8):715-17.

 

Platel, K., et al., “Studies on the influence of dietary species on food transit time in experimental rats,” Nutr Res 2001; 21(9):1309-14.

 

Rhode, J., et al., “Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells,” BMC Complet Altern Med 2007; 7:44.

 

Saenghong, N., et al., “Zingiber officinale improves cognitive function of the middle-aged healthy women,” Evid Based Comple Altern Med 2012; 2012:ID383062.

 

Schnitzler, P., et al., “Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 stains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51(5):1859-62.

 

Shoji, N., et al., “Cardiotonic principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe),” Jour Pharm Sci 1982; 71(10):1174-75.

 

Therkleson, T., “Ginger compress therapy for adults with osteoarthritis,” Jour Adv Nurs 2010; 66(10):2225-33.

 

Thomson, M., et al., “The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002; 67(6):475-78.

 

Vaes, L., et al., “Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence,” Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34(12):1478-82.

 

White, B., “Ginger: an overview,” Amer Fam Physician 2007; 75(11):1689-91.

 

Wu, K., et al., “Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans,” Eur Jour Gastrolenterol Hepatol 2008; 20(5):436-440.

 

Yamahara, J., et al., “The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1988; 23(2-3):299-304.

 

Green Tea

 

Baladia, E., et al., “Effect of green tea or green tea extract consumption on body weight and body composition: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Nutr Hosp 2014; 29(3):479-90.

 

Bettuzzi, S., et al., “Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study,” Cancer Res 2006; 66(2):1234-40.

 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Bogdanski, P., et al., “Green tea extract reduces blood pressure, inflammatory biomarkers, and oxidative stress and improves parameters associated with insulin resistance in obese, hypertensive patients,” Nutri Res 2012; 32:421-47.

 

Borrelli, F., et al., “Systematic review: green tea and gastrointestinal cancer risk,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19(5):497-510.

 

Boschmann, M., et al., “The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study,” Jour Am Coll Nutr 2007; 26(4):389S-395S.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M.  Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

 

Chang, C., et al., “Inhibitory effects of polyphenolic catechins from Chinese green tea on HIV reverse transcriptase activity,” Jour Biomed Psy 1994; 1(3):163-66.

 

Cooper, R., et al., “Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2005; 11(3):521-28.

 

Fritz, H., et al., “Green tea and lung cancer: a systemic review,” Integr Cancer Ther 2013; 12(1):7-24.

 

Garcia, F., et al., “Apoptosis induction by green tea compounds in cervical cancer cells,” Eur Jour Cancer Suppl 2006; 4(1):58.

 

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

 

Hibasami, H., et al., “Induction of apoptosis in human stomach cancer cells by green tea catechins,” Oncol Rep 1998; 5(2):527-29.

 

Hsu, C., et al., “Does supplementation with green tea extract improve insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetics? A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Altern Med Rev 2011; 16(2):157-63.

 

Hursel, K., et al., “The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis,” Int Jour Obesity 2009; 33:956-61.

 

Imai, K., et al., “Cancer-preventive effects of drinking green tea among a Japanese population,” Prev Med 1997; 2696):769-75.

 

James, K., et al., Potential role of the mitochondria as a target for the hepatotoxic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice,” Food Chem Toxicol 2018; 111:302-09.

 

Jian, L., et al., “Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: a case-control study in southeast China,” Inter Jour Cancer 2004; 108(1):130-35.

 

Jin, X., et al., “Green tea consumption and liver disease: a systematic review,” Liver Intern 2008; 28(7):990-96.

 

Khalesi, S., et al., “Green tea catechins and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” Eur Jour Nutr 2014; 53(6):1299-311.

 

Kim, H., et al., New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate,” Redox Biol 2014; 2:187-95.

 

Kimura, K., et al., “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses,” Biol Psychol 2007; 74(1):39-45.

 

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

 

Koo, S., et al., “Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2007; 18(3):179-83.

 

Kovacs, E., et al., “Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss,” Brit Jour Nutr 2004; 91(3):431-37.

 

Kuriyama, S., et al., “Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki study,” JAMA 2006; 296(10):1255-65.

 

Liu, K., et al., “Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 98(2):340-48.

 

Low Dog, T., et al., “Traditional and alternative therapies for breast cancer,” Alt Ther 2001; 7(3):36-47.

 

Luo, M., et al., “Inhibition of LDL oxidation by green tea extract,” Lancet 1997; 349:360-61.

 

McKenna, D., et al., “Green tea monograph,” Alt Ther 2000; 6(3):61-84.

 

Nagao, T., et al., “A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans,” Obesity 2007; 15(6):1473-83.

 

Narotzki, B., et al., “Green tea: a promising natural product in oral health,” Arch Oral Biol 2012; 57(5):429-35.

 

Quillin, P., Beating Cancer With Nutrition. Tulsa, OK: Nutrition Times Press, Inc, 2000.

 

Rakel. Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2012.

 

Ryu, O., et al., “Effects of green tea consumption on inflammation, insulin resistance and pulse wave velocity in type 2 diabetes patients,” Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2006; 71(3):356-58.

 

Sano, T., et al., “Green tea and gastric cancer,” NEJM 2001; 344(9):675-76.

 

Sasazuki, S., et al., “Relation between green tea consumption and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis among Japanese men and women,” Ann Epidemiol 2000; 10:401-08.

 

Setiawan, V., et al., “Protective effect of green tea on the risks of chronic gastritis and stomach cancer,” Int Jour Cancer 2001; 92(4):600-04.

 

Shankar, S., et al., “EGCG inhibits growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of pancreatic cancer,” Front Biosci 2008; 13:440-52.

 

Steptoe, A., et al., “The effects of chronic tea intake on platelet activation and inflammation: a double-blind placebo controlled trial,” Atherosclerosis  2007; 193(2):277-82.

 

Trudel, D., et al., “Green tea for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment: a systemic review of the in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies,” Gynecol Oncol 2012; 126(3):491-98.

 

Tsubono, Y., et al., “Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan,” NEJM 2001; 344(9):632-36.

Vinson, J., et al., “Green and black teas inhibit atherosclerosis by lipid, antioxidant, and fibrinolytic mechanisms,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2004; 52(11):3661-65.

 

Wargovich, M., et al., “Herbals, cancer prevention and health,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131(11 Suppl):3034S-3036S.

 

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc, 2000.

 

Westerterp-Plantenga, M., et al., “Body weight and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea,” Obes Res 2005; 13(7):1195-204.

 

Yang, G., et al., “Prospective cohort study of green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in women,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(6):1219-23.

 

Yuan, J., “Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 98(6 Suppl):1676S-1681S.

 

Yuan, J., “Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2011; 55(6):886-904.

 

Zhang, M., et al., “Green tea consumption enhances survival of epithelial ovarian cancer,” Int Jour Cancer 2004; 112(3):465-69.

 

Zheng, X., et al., “Effects of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on glycemic control in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 97(4):750-62.

 

Zhou, B., et al., “The association of tea consumption with ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197(6):594.e1-6.

 

N-acetylcysteine

 

Braun, T., et al., “A review of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of grooming disorders,” Int Jour Dermatol 2019; 58(4):502-10.

 

Cazzola, M., et al., “Pharmacological investigation on the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of N-acetylcysteine in an ex vivo model of COPD exacerbation,” Respir Res 2017; 18(1):26.

 

Chen, A., et al., “Placebo-controlled augmentation trials of the antioxidant NAC in Schizophrenia: A review,” Ann Clin Psychiatry 2016; 28(3):190-96.

 

Dhouib, I., et al., “A minireview on N-acetylcysteine: An old drug with new approaches,” Life Sci 2016; 151:359-63.

 

Ershad, M., et al., “N-Acetylcysteine,” StatPearls (Internet) October 9, 2019.

 

Flanagan, R., et al., “Use of N-acetylcysteine in clinical toxicology,” Amer Jour Med 1991; 91(3C):131S-139S.

 

Franca, K., et al., “N-acetyl cysteine in the treatment of trichotillomania,” Dermatol Ther 2017; 30(3).

 

Ge, Z., et al., “Study of protective effects on noise-induced hearing loss using N-acetyl cysteine,” Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2011; 25(22):1040-41.

 

Geiter, J., et al., “N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibits virus replication and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in A549 cells infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus,” Biochem Pharmacol 2010; 79(3):413-20.

 

Green, J., et al., “Oral and intravenous acetylcysteine for treatment of acetaminophen toxicity: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” West Jour Emerg Med 2013; 14(3):218-26.

 

Hayes, B., et al., “Frequency of medication errors with intravenous acetylcysteine for acetaminophen overdose,” Ann Pharmacother 2008; 42(6):766-70.

 

Heard, K., et al., “Massive acetylcysteine overdose associated with cerebral edema and seizures,” Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2011; 49(5):423-25.

 

Hodgman, M., et al., “A review of acetaminophen poisoning,” Crit Care Clim 2012; 28(4):499-516.

 

Hoffer, M., et al., “Amelioration of acute sequelae of blast induced mild traumatic brain injury by N-acetyl cysteine: a double-blind, placebo controlled study,” PLoS One 2013; 8(1):e54163.

 

Howard, R., et al., “Allopurinol/N-acetylcysteine for carbon monoxide poisoning,” Lancet 1987; 2(8559):628-29.

 

Jepsen, S., et al., “The influence of N-acetylcysteine on the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in healthy subjects,” Scand Jour Clin Lab Invest 1994; 54(7):543-47.

 

Keays, R., et al., “Intravenous acetylcysteine in paracetamol induced fulminant hepatic failure: a prospective controlled trial,” BMJ 1991; 303(6809):1026-29.

 

Kerr, F., et al., “The Australasian Clinical Toxicology Investigators Collaboration randomized trial of different loading infusion rates of N-acetylcysteine,” Ann Emerg Med 2005; 45(4):402-08.

 

Lin, C., et al., “N-acetyl cysteine against noise-induced temporary threshold shift in male workers,” Hear Res 2010; 269(1-2):42-7.

 

Mahmoudi, G., et al., “N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning,” Int Med Case Rep Jour 2015; 8:65-9.

 

Mokhtari, V., et al., “A review on various uses of N-acetyl cysteine,” Cell Jour 2017; 19(1):11-17.

 

Mullier, E., et al., “N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation improves functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex in early psychosis: A pilot study,” Int Jour Neuropsychopharmacol 2019; 22(8):478-87.

 

Nisar, S., et al., “N-acetylcysteine as salvage therapy in cisplatin nephrotoxicity,” Ren Fail 2002; 24(4):529-33.

 

Nwankwo, C., et al., “N-acetylcysteine in psychodermatological disorders,” Dermatol Ther 2019; 32(5):e13073.

 

Poon, R., et al., “N-acetylcysteine causes false-positive ketone results with urinary dipsticks,” Clin Chem 1990; 36(5):818-19.

 

Prescott, L., et al., “Intravenous N-acetylcysteine: the treatment of choice for paracetamol poisoning,” Brit Med Jour 1979; 2(6198):1097-100.

 

Riga, M., et al., “Transtympanic injections of N-acetyl cysteine for the prevention of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity: a feasible method with promising efficacy,” Amer Jour Clin Oncol 2013; 36(1):1-6.

 

Rushworth, G., et al., “Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: The need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits,” Pharmacol Ther 2014; 141(2):150-59.

 

Sadowska, A., et al., “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy of NAC in the treatment of COPD: discordant in vitro and in vivo dose-effects: A review,” Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2007; 20(1):9-22.

 

Said, S., et al., “Prevention of sodium valproate-induced hepatotoxicity by curcumin, rosiglitazone and N-acetylcysteine in rats,” Arzneimittelforschung 2010; 60(11):647-53.

 

Santus, P., et al., “Oxidative stress and respiratory system: pharmacological and clinical reappraisal of N-acetylcysteine,” COPD 2014; 11(6):705-17.

 

Seidman, C., et al., “N-acetylcysteine in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial: Toward biomarker-guided treatment in early psychosis,” Schizophr Bull 2018; 44(2):317-27.

 

Sepehrmanesh, Z., et al., “Therapeutic effect of adjunctive N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on symptoms of chronic schizophrenia: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial,” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018; 82:289-96.

 

Srinivasan, V., et al., “An accidental overdose of N-acetylcysteine during treatment for acetaminophen toxicity,” Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2015; 53(5):500.

 

Tardiolo, G., et al, “Overview on the effects of N-acetylcysteine in neurodegenerative diseases,” Molecules 2018; 23(12):3305.

 

Tse, H., et al., “Update on the pathological processes, molecular biology, and clinical utility of N-acetylcysteine in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Int Jour Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2014; 9:825-36.

 

Walter’s M., et al., “A double-blind cross-over, study of oral N-acetylcysteine in Sjogren’s syndrome,” Scand Jour Rheumatol Suppl 1986; 61:253-58.

 

Waring, W., et al., “Lower incidence of anaphylactoid reactions to N-acetylcysteine in patients with high acetaminophen concentrations after overdose,” Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2008; 46(6):496-500.

 

Yip, L., et al., “A 20-hour treatment for acute acetaminophen overdose,” NEJM 2003; 348(24):2471-72.

 

Pomegranate

 

Adhami, V., et al., “Cancer chemoprevention by pomegranate: Laboratory and clinical evidence,” Nutr Cancer 2009; 61(6):811-15.

 

Al-Muammar, M., et al., “Obesity: The preventative role of the pomegranate (Punica granatum),” Nutrition 2012; 28(6):595-604.

 

Ammar, A., et al., “Effects of pomegranate supplementation on exercise performance and post-exercise recovery in healthy adults: A systematic review,” Brit Jour Nutr 2018; 120(11):1201-16.

 

Asgary, S., et al., “Pomegranate consumption and blood pressure: A review,” Curr Pharm Des 2017; 23(7):1042-50.

 

Banihani, S., et al., “Fresh pomegranate juice ameliorates insulin resistance, enhances B-cell function, and decreases fasting serum glucose in type 2 diabetic patients,” Nutr Res 2014; 34(10):862-67.

 

Bell, C., et al., “Ellagic acid, pomegranate and prostate cancer—A mini review,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2008; 60(2):139-44.

 

Danesi, F., et al., “Could pomegranate juice help in the control of inflammatory diseases?” Nutrients 2017; 9(9):958.

 

Dell’agli, M., et al., “Ellagitannins of the fruit rind of pomegranate (Punica granatum) antagonize in vitro the host inflammatory response mechanisms involved in the onset of malaria,” Malar Jour 2010; 9:208.

 

Faria, A., et al., “The bioactivity of pomegranate: Impact on health and disease,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2011; 51(7):626-34.

 

Jurenka, J., et al., “Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.): A Review,” Altern Med Rev 2008; 13(2):128-44.

 

Khan, S., et al., “The role of pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) in colon cancer,” Pak Jour Pharm Sci 2009; 22(3):346-48.

 

Lansky, E., et al., “Punica granatum (Pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2007; 109(2):177-206.

 

Les, F., et al., “Bioactive properties of commercialized pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice: Antioxidant, antiproliferative and enzyme inhibiting activities,” Food Funct 2015; 6(6):2049-57.

 

Malik, A., et al., “Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102(41):14813-38.

 

Saeed, M., et al., “The promising pharmacological effects and therapeutic/medicinal applications of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) as a functional food in humans and animals,” Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2018; 12(1):24-38.

 

Shaygannia, E., et al., “A review study on Punica granatum L.,” Jour Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2016; 21(3):221-27.

 

Sohrab, G., et al., “Effects of pomegranate juice consumption on inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Jour Res Med Sci 2014; 19(3):215-20.

 

Turrini, E., et al., “Potential effects of pomegranate polyphenols in cancer prevention and therapy,” Oxid Med Cell Longev 2015; 1015:938475.

 

Usta, C., et al., “The pharmacological use of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit,” Int Jour Food Sci Nutr 2013; 64(7):907-13.

 

Pycnogenol

 

Aoki, H., “Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction,” Phytother Res 2012; 26:204-07.

 

Araghi-Niknam, M., et al., “Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation,” Integr Med 2000; 2:73-7.

 

Arcangeli, P., “Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency,” Fitoterapia 2000; 71:236-44.

 

Belcaro, G., “Variations in C-reactive protein, plasma free radicals and fibrinogen values in patients with osteoarthritis treated with Pycnogenol,” Redox Rep 2008; 13:271-76.

 

Belcaro, G., et al., “Control of edema in hypertensive subjects treated with calcium antagonist (nifedipine) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with pycnogenol,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006; 12:440-44.

 

Belcaro, G., et al., “Diabetic ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with pycnogenol,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006; 12:318-23.

 

Belcaro, G., et al., “Investigation of Pycnogenol(R) in combination with coenzymeQ10 in heart failure patients (NYHA II/III),” Panminerva Med 2010; 52(2 Suppl 1):21-5.

 

Belcaro, G., et al., “Pycnogenol improvements in asthma management,” Panminerva Med. 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):57-64.

 

Belcaro, G., et al., “Pycnogenol treatment of acute hemorrhoidal episodes,” Phytother Res 2010; 24:438-44.

 

Belcaro, G., et al., “Venous ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with local use of Pycnogenol,” Angiology 2005; 56:699-705.

 

Berryman, A., et al., “Influence of treatment of diabetic rats with combinations of pycnogenol, beta-carotene, and alpha-lipoic acid on parameters of oxidative stress,” Jour Biochem Mol Toxicol 2004; 18:345-52.

 

Blazso, G., et al., “Pycnogenol accelerates wound healing and reduces scar formation,” Phytother Res 2004; 18:579-81.

 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Comparison of Pycnogenol and Daflon in treating chronic venous insufficiency: a prospective, controlled study,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006; 12:205-12. 

 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Improvement of diabetic microangiopathy with Pycnogenol: A prospective, controlled study,” Angiology 2006; 57:431-36.

 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Improvement of signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and microangiopathy with Pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study,” Phytomedicine 2010; 17:835-39.

 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Kidney flow and function in hypertension: protective effects of pycnogenol in hypertensive participants--a controlled study,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2010; 15:41-6.

 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Prevention of edema in long flights with Pycnogenol,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2005; 11:289-94.

 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with Flite Tabs: The LONFLIT-FLITE randomized, controlled trial,” Angiology 2003; 54:531-39.

 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Rapid relief of signs/symptoms in chronic venous microangiopathy with pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study,” Angiology 2006; 57:569-76.

 

Chayasirisobhon, S., “Use of a pine bark extract and antioxidant vitamin combination product as therapy for migraine in patients refractory to pharmacologic medication,” Headache 2006; 46:788-93.

 

Cho, K., et al., “Inhibition mechanisms of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001; 928:141-56.

 

Cisar, P., et al., “Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis,” Phytother Res 2008; 22:1087-92.

 

Clark, C., et al., “Herbal interventions for chronic asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Prim Care Respir Jour 2010; 19:307-14.

 

Devaraj, S., et al., “Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile,” Lipids 2002; 37:931-34.  

 

Durackova, B. et al., “Lipid metabolism and erectile function improvement by pycnogenol, extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction - a pilot study,” Nutri Res 2003; 23:1189-98.

 

Durackova, Z., et al., “Lipid metabolism and erectile function improvement by Pycnogenol, extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction-a pilot study,” Nutr Res 2003; 23:1189-98.

 

Dvorakova, M., et al., “How does pycnogenol influence oxidative damage to DNA and its repair ability in elderly people?” Prague Med Rep 2010; 111:263-71.

 

Dvorakova, M., et al., “Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (Pycnogenol),” Nutr Neurosci 2007; 10(3-4):151-57.

 

Eczikouri, S., et al., “Supplementing conventional treatment with pycnogenol may improve hepatitis C virus-associated type 2 diabetes: a mini review,” Jour Clin Trans Hepato 2016; 4(3):228-33.

 

Enseleit, F., et al., “Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study,” Eur Heart Jour 2012; 33:1589-97.

 

Errichi, B., et al., “Prevention of post thrombotic syndrome with Pycnogenol in a twelve month study,” Panminerva Med 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):21-27.

 

Errichi, S., et al., “Supplementation with Pycnogenol improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition,” Panminerva Med 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):65-70.

 

Farid, R., et al., “Pycnogenol supplementation reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis,” Nutri Res 2007; 27:692-97.

 

Ferri, C., et al., “Antioxidants and beneficial microvascular effects: is this the remedy?” Hypertension 2010; 55:1310-11.

 

Fitzpatrick, D., et al., “Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998; 32:509-15.

 

Furumura, M., et al., “Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin,” Clin Interv Aging 2012; 7:275-86.

 

Grimm, T., et al., “Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and MMP-9 secretion by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol),” Jour Inflam (Lond) 2006; 3:1.

 

Grossi, M., et al., “Improvement in cochlear flow with Pycnogenol in patients with tinnitus: a pilot evaluation,” Panminerva Med 2010; 52(2 Suppl 1):63-7.

 

Gulati, O., “Pycnogenol in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders,” Phytother Res 2015; 29(7):949-68.

 

Gulati, O., “Pycnogenol in venous disorders: a review,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:8-13.

 

Hasegawa, N., “Stimulation of lipolysis by pycnogenol,” Phytother Res 1999; 13:619-20.

 

Hosseini, S., et al., “A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, prospective 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patient,” Nutr Res 2001; 21:67-76.

 

Hosseini, S., et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective, 16 week crossover study to determine the role of pycnogenol in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients,” Nutr Res 2001; 21:1251-60.

 

Hosseini, S., et al., “Pycnogenol in the management of asthma,” Jour Medicinal Food 2001; 4:201-09.

 

Huynh, H., et al., “Selective induction of apoptosis in human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) by pycnogenol,” Anticancer Res 2000; 20:2417-20.

 

Jankyova, S., et al., “The effects of Pycnogenol as add-on drug to metformin therapy in diabetic rats,” Phytother Res 2016; 30(8):1354-61.

 

Jialal, I., et al., “The effect of pycnogenol supplementation on markers of inflammation,” Altern Ther 2001; 7:S17.

 

Kimbrough, C., et al., “Pycnogenol chewing gum minimizes gingival bleeding and plaque formation,” Phytomedicine 2002; 9:410-13.

 

Kobayashi, M., et al., “Antioxidants and herbal extracts protect HT-4 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity,” Free Radic Res 2000; 32:115-24.

 

Koch, R., “Comparative study of venostatin and pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency,” Phytother Res 2002; 16:S1-S5.  

 

Kohama, T., et al., “Analgesic efficacy of French maritime pine bark extract in dysmenorrhea: an open clinical trial,” Jour Reprod Med 2004; 49:828-32.

 

Kohama, T., et al., “Effect of low-dose french maritime pine bark extract on climacteric syndrome in 170 perimenopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Jour Reproductive Med 2013; 58:39-47.

 

Kohama, T., et al., “The treatment of gynecological disorders with pycnogenol,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:30-2.

 

Lau, B., et al., “Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of childhood asthma,” Jour Asthma 2004; 41:825-32.

 

Ledda, A., et al., “Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study,” BJU Int 2010; 106:1030-33.

 

Lee, T., et al., “Nutritional supplements and their effect on glucose control,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2012; 771:381-95.

 

Liu, F., et al., “Pycnogenol protects vascular endothelial cells from beta-amyloid-induced injury,” Biol Pharm Bull 2000; 23:735-37.

 

Liu, X., et al., “Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II,” Life Sci 2004; 75:2505-13.

 

Liu, X., et al., “Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients,” Life Sci 2004; 74:855-62.

 

Luzzi, R., et al., “Pycnogenol supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students,” Panminerva Med 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):75-82.

 

Marini, A., et al., “Pycnogenol effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women,” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2012; 25:86-92.

 

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

 

Mochizuki, M., et al., “Therapeutic efficacy of pycnogenol in experimental inflammatory bowel diseases,” Phytother Res 2004; 18:1027-28.

 

Moini, H., et al., “Bioflavonoid effects on the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain and cytochrome c redox state,” Redox Rep 1999; 4(1-2):35-41.

 

Ni, Z., et al., “Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol,” Phytother Res 2002; 16:567-71.

 

Ohkita, M., et al., “Pharmacology in health foods: improvement of vascular endothelial function by French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol),” Jour Pharmacol Sci 2011; 115:461-65.

 

Ohnishi, S., et al., “Sickle cell anemia: a potential nutritional approach for a molecular disease,” Nutrition 2000; 16:330-38.

 

Packer, L., et al., “Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol,” Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 27(5-6):704-24.

 

Peng, Q., et al., “Pycnogenol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression in human vascular endothelial cells,” Cell Mol Life Sci 2000; 57:834-41.

 

Peng, Q., et al., “Pycnogenol protects neurons from amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis,” Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2002; 104:55-65.

 

Petrassi, C., et al., “Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency,” Phytomedicine 2000; 7:383-88.

 

Rohdewald, P., “Bioavailability and metabolism of pycnogenol,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:5-7.

 

Rohdewald, P., “Reducing the risk for stroke and heart infarction with pycnogenol,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:14-8.

 

Roseff, S., “Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract,” Jour Reprod Med 2002; 47:821-24.

 

Roseff, S., et al., “Improvement of sperm quality by pycnogenol,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:33-36.

 

Rucklidge, J., et al., “Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD,” Expert Rev Neurother 2009; 9:461-76.

 

Ryan, J., et al., “An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population,” Jour Psychopharmacol 2008; 22:553-62.

 

Schafer, A., et al., “Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol),” Biomed Pharmacother 2006; 60:5-9.

 

Schoonees, A., et al., “Pycnogenol (extract of French maritime pine bark) for the treatment of chronic disorders,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 4:CD008294.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Spadea, L., et al., “Treatment of vascular retinopathies with pycnogenol,” Phytother Res 2001; 15:219-23.

 

Stanislavov, R., et al., “Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine,” Jour Sex Marital Ther 2003; 29:207-13.

 

Stefanescu, M., et al., “Pycnogenol efficacy in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.” Phytother Res 2001; 15:698-704.

 

Steigerwalt, R., “Pycnogenol improves microcirculation, retinal edema, and visual acuity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Jour Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2009; 25:537-40.

 

Steigerwalt, R., et al., “Effects of Mirtogenol on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects. Mol Vis 2008; 14:1288-92.

 

Stuard, S., et al., “Kidney function in metabolic syndrome may be improved with Pycnogenol,” Panminerva Med 2010; 52(2 Suppl 1):27-32.

 

Suzuki, N., et al., “French maritime pine bark extract significantly lowers the requirement for analgesic medication in dysmenorrhea: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Jour Reprod Med 2008; 53:338-46.

 

Tenenbaum, S., et al., “An experimental comparison of Pycnogenol and methylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” Jour Atten Disord 2002; 6:49-60.

 

Torras, M., et al., “Antimicrobial activity of Pycnogenol,” Phytother Res 2005; 19:647-48.

 

Trebaticka, J., et al., “Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pyc Pycnogenol,” Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006; 15:329-35.

 

Vinciguerra, G., et al., “Cramps and muscular pain: prevention with Pyconogenol in normal subjects, venous patients, athletes, claudicants and in diabetic microangiopathy,” Angiology 2006; 57:331-39.

 

Wang, S., et al., “The effect of pycnogenol on the microcirculation, platelet function and ischemic myocardium in patients with coronary artery diseases,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999 7:19-25.

 

Wei, Z., et al., “Pycnogenol enhances endothelial cell antioxidant defenses,” Redox Report 1997; 3:219-24.

 

Wilson, D., et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for improving allergic rhinitis symptoms,” Phytother Res 2010; 24:1115-19.

 

Yang, H., et al., “A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of Pycnogenol on the climacteric syndrome in peri-menopausal women,” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2007; 86:978-85.

 

Zibadi, S., et al., “Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation,” Nutr Res 2008; 28:315-20.

 

Resveratrol

 

Agarwal, B., et al., “Resveratrol for primary prevention of atherosclerosis: clinical trial evidence for improved gene expression in vascular endothelium,” Int Jour Cardiol 2013; 166(1):246-48.

 

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Role of resveratrol in prevention and therapy of cancer: preclinical and clinical studies,” Anticancer Res 2004; 24(5A):2783-2840.

 

Aguirre, L., et al., “Resveratrol: anti-obesity mechanisms of action,” Molecules 2014; 19(11):18632-55.

 

Bhatt, J., et al., “Resveratrol supplementation improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Nutr Res 2012; 32(7):537-41. 

 

Bishayee, A., et al., “Resveratrol and liver disease: from bench to bedside and community,” Liver Int 2010; 30(8):1103-14.

 

Boocock, D., et al., “Phase I dose escalation pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers of resveratrol, a potential cancer chemopreventive agent,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(6):1246-52.

 

Bradamante, S., et al., “Cardiovascular protective effects of resveratrol,” Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2004; 22(3):169-88.

 

Brown, V., et al., “Repeat dose study of the cancer chemopreventive agent resveratrol in healthy volunteers: safety, pharmacokinetics, and effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis,” Cancer Res 2010; 70(22):9003-11.

 

Carluccio, M., et al., “Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation: antiatherogenic properties of Mediterranean diet phytochemicals,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003; 23(4):622-29.

 

Chen, Y., et al., “Review. Pro- and anti-angiogenesis effects of resveratrol,” In Vivo 2007; 21(2):365-70.

 

de la Lastra, C., et al., “Resveratrol as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging agent: mechanisms and clinical implications,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2005; 49(5):405-30.

 

Detampel, P., et al., “Drug interaction potential of resveratrol,” Drug Metab Rev 2012; 44(3):253-65. 

 

Duffy, S., et al., “Effects of phenolics on vascular endothelial function,” Curr Opin Lipidol 2003; 14(1):21-7. 

 

Frankel, E., et al., “Inhibition of human LDL oxidation by resveratrol,” Lancet 1993; 341(8852):1103-04.

 

Gronbaek, M., et al., “Type of alcohol consumed and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cancer,” Ann Intern Me 2000; 133(6):411-19. 

 

Grover-Paez, F., et al., “Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors,” Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009; 84(1):1-10. 

 

Hausenblas, H., et al., “Resveratrol treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological management in type 2 diabetes mellitus-systematic review and meta-analysis,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2015; 59(1):147-59. 

 

Karatzi, K., et al., “Effects of red wine on endothelial function: postprandial studies vs clinical trials,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009; 19(10):744-50.

 

Karuppagounder, S., et al., “Dietary supplementation with resveratrol reduces plaque pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease,” Neurochem Int 2009; 54(2):111-18. 

 

Kennedy, D., et al., “Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 91(6):1590-97. 

 

Klinge, C., et al., “Resveratrol and estradiol rapidly activate MAPK signaling through estrogen receptors alpha and beta in endothelial cells,” Jour Biol Chem 2005; 280(9):7460-68.

 

Kodali, M., et al., “Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation,” Sci Rep 2015; 5:8075. 

 

Leonard, S., et al., “Resveratrol scavenges reactive oxygen species and effects radical-induced cellular responses,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003; 309(4):1017-26.

 

Li, K., et al., “Effect of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nut 2014; 99(6):1510-19. 

 

Lin, M., et al., “Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis by resveratrol through interruption of Src-dependent vascular endothelial cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation,” Mol Pharmacol 2003; 64(5):1029-36. 

 

Lippi, G., et al., “Moderate red wine consumption and cardiovascular disease risk: beyond the ‘French paradox,” Semin Thromb Hemost 2010; 36(1):59-70.

 

Liu, Y., et al., “Effect of resveratrol on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Clin Nutr 2015; 34(1):27-34. 

 

Ma, T., et al., “Resveratrol as a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease,” Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:350516.

 

Marambaud, P., “Resveratrol promotes clearance of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides,” Jour Biol Chem 2005; 280(45):37377-82. 

 

Moussa, C., et al., “Resveratrol regulates neuro-inflammation and induces adaptive immunity in Alzheimer's disease,” Jour Neuroinflammation 2017; 14(1):1.

 

Movahed, A., et al., “Antihyperglycemic effects of short-term resveratrol supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013:851267. 

 

Mukamal, K., et al., “Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men,” NEJM 2003; 348(2):109-18.

 

Pasinetti, G., et al., “Roles of resveratrol and other grape-derived polyphenols in Alzheimer's disease prevention and treatment,” Biochim Biophys Acta 2015; 1852(6):1202-08.

 

Patel, K., et al., “Clinical pharmacology of resveratrol and its metabolites in colorectal cancer patients,” Cancer Res 2010; 70(19):7392-99. 

 

Salvamani, S., et al., “Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids,” Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:480258. 

 

Schroder, H., et al., “Myocardial infarction and alcohol consumption: a population-based case-control study,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007; 17(8):609-15.

 

Semba, R., et al., “Resveratrol levels and all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling adults,” JAMA Intern Med 2014; 174(7):1077-84. 

 

Shankar, S., et al., “Chemoprevention by resveratrol: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential,” Front Biosci 2007; 12:4839-54.

 

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.

 

Szkudelski, T., et al., “Resveratrol and diabetes: from animal to human studies,” Biochim Biophys Acta 2015; 1852(6):1145-54.

 

Takahashi, S., et al., “Repeated and long-term treatment with physiological concentrations of resveratrol promotes NO production in vascular endothelial cells,” Brit Jour Nutr 2012; 107(6):774-80.

 

Tome-Carneiro, J., et al., “Consumption of a grape extract supplement containing resveratrol decreases oxidized LDL and ApoB in patients undergoing primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a triple-blind, 6-month follow-up, placebo-controlled, randomized trial,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2012; 56(5):810-21. 

 

Tome-Carneiro, J., et al., “Resveratrol in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a dietary and clinical perspective,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013; 1290:37-51. 

 

Vitaglione, P., et al., “Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2005; 49(5):495-504. 

 

Walle, T., “Bioavailability of resveratrol,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011; 1215:9-15. 

 

Walle, T., et al., “High absorption but very low bioavailability of oral resveratrol in humans,” Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32(12):1377-82. 

 

Wang, H., et al., “Resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: what is known from current research?” Heart Fail Rev 2012; 17(3):437-48. 

 

Witte, A., et al., “Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampal functional connectivity, and glucose metabolism in healthy older adults,” Jour Neurosci 2014; 34(23):7862-70. 

 

Yu, H., et al., “Resveratrol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” Biomed Pharmacother 2008; 62(6):366-72.

 

Zhuang, H., et al., “Potential mechanism by which resveratrol, a red wine constituent, protects neurons,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003; 993:276-86.

 

Rosemary

 

al-Sereiti, M., et al., “Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 1999; 37(2):124-30.

 

Colica, C., et al., “Rosmarinic acid as potential anti-inflammatory agent,” Rev Recent Clin Trials 2018; 13(4):240-42.

 

Farkhondeh, T., et al., “Hypolipidemic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L.,” Jour Cell Physiol 2019; 234(9):14680-688.

 

Moreno, S., et al., “Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition,” Free Radic Res 2006; 40(2):223-31.

 

Nematolahi, P., et al., “Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students: A randomized clinical trial,” Complement Ther Clin Pract 2018; 30:24-28.

 

Rahbardar, M., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and rosmarinic acid in a rat model of neuropathic pain,” Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 86:441-49.

 

Rahbardar, M., et al., “Therapeutic effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its active constituents on nervous system disorders,” Iran Jour Basic Med Sci 2020; 23(9):1100-12.

 

Rocha, J., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effect of rosmarinic acid and an extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in rat models of local and systemic inflammation,” Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2015; 116(5):398-413.

 

Yamato, S., et al., “Rosmarinic acid suppresses tau phosphorylation and cognitive decline by downregulating the JNK signaling pathway,” NPJ Sci Food 2021; 5(1):1.

 

Thyme

 

Salehi, B., et al., “Thymol, thyme, and other plant sources: Health and potential uses,” Phytother Res 2018; 32(9):1688-1706.

 

Sasaki, K., et al., “Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves and its constituents increase the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in mouse liver,” Jour Med Food 2005; 8(2):184-89.

 

Sienkiewicz, M., et al., “Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils,” Med Chem 2011; 7(6):674-89.

 

White Willow Bark Extract

 

Bonaterra, G., et al., “In vitro anti-proliferative effects of the willow bark extract STW 33-I,” Arzneimittelforschung 2010; 60(6):330-5.

 

Hostanska, K., et al., “Willow bark extract (BNO1455) and its fractions suppress growth and induce apoptosis in human colon and lung cancer cells,” Cancer Detect Prev 2007; 31(2):129-39.

 

Shara, M., et al., “Efficacy and safety of white willow bark (Salix alba) extracts,” Phytother Res 2015; 29(8):1112-16.